The lateral phase distribution in the cap-bubbly regime was analyzed with a three-dimensional three-field two-fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model based on the turbulence model for bubbly flows developed by Lopez de Bertodano et al. [1994, “Phase Distribution in Bubbly Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Ducts,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 20(5), pp. 805–818]. The turbulent diffusion of the bubbles is the dominant phase distribution mechanism. A new analytic result is presented to support the development of the model for the bubble induced turbulent diffusion force. New experimental data obtained by Sun et al. [2005, “Interfacial Structure in an Air-Water Planar Bubble Jet,” Exp. Fluids, 38(4), pp. 426–439] with the state-of-the-art four-sensor miniature conductivity probe in a vertical duct is used to validate the three-field two-fluid model CFD simulations.

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