Designing an exhaust manifold with close-coupled catalyst (CCC) relies heavily on time-consuming transient computional fluid dynamics. The current paper provides experimental validation of the addition principle for pulsating flow in CCC manifolds. The addition principle states that the time-averaged catalyst velocity distribution in pulsating flow equals a linear combination of velocity distributions obtained for steady flow through each of the exhaust runners. A charged motored engine flow rig provides cold pulsating flow in the exhaust manifold featuring blow down and displacement phases, typical of fired engine conditions. Oscillating hot-wire anemometry is used to measure the bidirectional velocity, with a maximum measurable negative velocity of . In part load and zero load conditions, instantaneous reverse flow occurs following the blow-down phase. The two-stage nature of the exhaust stroke combined with strong Helmholtz resonances results in strong fluctuations of the time-resolved mean catalyst velocity. The validity of the addition principle is quantified based on the shape and magnitude similarity between steady and pulsating flow distributions. Appropriate nondimensional groups are used to characterize the flow and quantify the similarity. Statistical significances are provided for the addition principle’s validity. The addition principle is valid when the nondimensional scavenging number exceeds a critical value , corresponding to cases of low engine speed and/or high flow rate. This study suggests that the CCC manifold efficiency with respect to catalyst flow uniformity could be quantified using a single scalar parameter, i.e., . The results from the current study are discussed with respect to previously reported results. The combined results are in good agreement and provide a thorough statistically founded experimental validation of the addition principle, based on a broad applicability range.
Experimental Validation of the Addition Principle for Pulsating Flow in Close-Coupled Catalyst Manifolds
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Persoons, T., Hoefnagels, A., and Van den Bulck, E. (February 1, 2006). "Experimental Validation of the Addition Principle for Pulsating Flow in Close-Coupled Catalyst Manifolds." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. July 2006; 128(4): 656–670. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2201646
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