Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Fluids Engineering Division January 13, 2003; revised manuscript received July 27, 2004. Review conducted by: M. Plesniak.

Drag reduction in turbulent flow, by low concentrations of polymers, is well known since the publication on the phenomenon by Toms 1. Recently, biodegradable surface active agents (surfactants) have become a more appropriate choice as drag reducing additives. These surfactants are environmental friendly and, in addition, they are less susceptible to mechanical degradation 2. The influence on turbulent flow characteristics could be spectacular with only few parts per million of surfactant solution, added to the solvent 3,4. The general belief is that surfactants, like other additives, act directly on the small turbulent scales (4,5,6 and references therein).

The drag...

1.
Toms, B. A., 1948, “Some Observation on the Flow of Linear Polymer Solutions Through Straight Tubes at Large Reynolds Numbers.” Proc. 1st Int. Congress on Rheology, North, Holland, Vol. II, 135–141.
2.
Zakin
,
J. L.
, and
Lui
,
H. L
,
1983
, “
Variables Affecting Drag Reduction by Nonionic Surfactant Additives
,”
Chem. Eng. Commun.
,
23
, pp.
77
80
.
3.
Ohlendorf
,
D.
,
Inherthal
,
W.
, and
Hoffman
,
H.
,
1986
, “
Surfactant Systems for Drag Reduction: Physico-Chemical Properties and Rheological Behaviour
,”
Rheol. Acta
,
26
, pp.
468
486
.
4.
Gyr, A., and Bewersdorff, H.-W., 1995, “Drag Reduction of Turbulent Flows by Additives,” Fluid Mechanics and its Applications, Kluwer, Netherlands.
5.
Nieuwstadt, F. T. M., and den Toonder, J. M. J., 2001, “Drag Reduction by Additives: A Review,” Turbulence Structure and Modulation, edited by A. Soldati and R. Monti, Springer, NY, pp. 269–316.
6.
Tsinober, A., 2001, An Informal Introduction to Turbulence, Kluwer, Netherlands.
7.
Warholic
,
M. D.
,
Gavin
,
M. S.
, and
Hanratty
,
T. J.
,
1999
, “
The Influence of a Drag-Reducing Surfactant on a Turbulent Velocity Field
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
388
, pp.
1
20
.
8.
Tsinober, A., 1990, “Turbulent Drag Reduction Versus Structure of Turbulence,” Structure of Turbulence and Drag Reduction, edited by A. Gyr, Springer, NY, pp. 313–334.
9.
Donohue
,
G. L.
,
Tiederman
,
W. G.
, and
Reischman
,
M. M.
,
1972
, “
Flow Visualization of the Nearwall Region in a Drag-Reducing Channel Flow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
56
, pp.
559
57
.
10.
Achia
,
B. U.
, and
Thompson
,
D. W.
,
1977
, “
Structure of the Turbulent Boundary in Drag-Reducing Flow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
81
, pp.
439
464
.
11.
Oldaker
,
D. K.
, and
Tiederman
,
W. G.
,
1977
, “
Structure of the Turbulent Boundary Layer in Drag Reducing Pipe Flow
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
20
, pp.
S133–S144
S133–S144
.
12.
Warholic
,
M. D.
,
Heist
,
D. K.
,
Katcher
,
M.
, and
Hanratty
,
T. J.
,
2001
, “
A Study with Particle-Image Velocimetry of the Influence of Drag-Reducing Polymers on the Structure of Turbulence
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
31
, pp.
474
483
.
13.
White
,
C. M.
,
Somandepalli
,
V. S. R.
, and
Mungal
,
M. G.
,
2004
, “
The Turbulence Structure of Drag-Reduced Boundary Layer Flow
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
36
, pp.
62
69
.
14.
Virk
,
P. S.
,
1971
, “
Drag Reduction in Rough Pipes
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
45
, pp.
225
246
.
15.
Myska
,
J.
, and
Chara
,
Z.
,
2001
, “
The Effect of a Zwitterionic and Cationic Surfactant in Turbulent Flows
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
30
, pp.
229
236
.
16.
Hetsroni
,
G.
, and
Rozenblit
,
R.
,
1994
, “
Heat Transfer to Liquid-Solid Mixture in a Flume
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
20
, pp.
671
689
.
17.
Liberzon
,
A.
,
Gurka
,
R.
, and
Hetsroni
,
G.
,
2004
, “
XPIV—Multi-Plane Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
36
(
2
), pp.
355
362
.
18.
TSI Inc. INSIGHT5.10 PIV Evaluation Software, 2002, TSI Inc., Shoreview, MN.
19.
Raffel, M., Willert, C. E., and Kompenhans, J., 1998, Particle Image Velocimetry: A Practical Guide, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
20.
Kawaguchi
,
Y.
,
Segawa
,
T.
,
Feng
,
Z. P.
, and
Li
,
P. W.
,
2002
, “
Experimental Study on Drag-Reducing Channel Flow with Surfactant Additives—Spatial Structure of Turbulence Investigated by PIV System
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
23
(
5
), pp.
700
709
.
21.
Wei
,
T.
, and
Willmarth
,
W. W.
,
1992
, “
Modifying Turbulence Structure with Drag-Reducing Polymer Additives in Turbulent Channel Flow
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
245
, pp.
619
641
.
22.
den Toonder
,
J. M. J.
,
Hulsen
,
M. A.
,
Kuiken
,
G. D. C.
, and
Nieuwstadt
,
F. T. M.
,
1997
, “
Drag Reduction by Polymer Additives in a Turbulent Pipe Flow: Numerical and Laboratory Experiments
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
337
, pp.
193
231
.
You do not currently have access to this content.