Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Fluids Engineering Division June 6, 2003; revised manuscript received March 4, 2004. Associate Editor: P. Signier.

Miniaturization of traditional devices is in high demand for micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Examples include but are not limited to optics, communication and information systems, fluidics, biotechnology, medicine, automotive, and aerospace. An area of interest in several engineering fields is the control of fluid flow within microchannels and microtubes. The applications include, but are not limited to, fields such as vibration control of structures and systems using small devices, reactors for modification and separation of biological cells, energy systems as a mobile power supply, heat exchangers for micro and macro devices, and propulsion engines 1,2,3.

In recent years, there has been growing attention given to the...

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