Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. Manuscript received by the Fluids Engineering Division February 17, 2000; revised manuscript received May 10, 2001. Associate Editor: J. Katz.

In near-wall turbulence research, accurate determination of the wall shear stress, τw, (or skin friction coefficient Cf) is of critical importance due to its practical relevance and also because it determines the friction velocity uτ used by most boundary layer scaling laws. A number of techniques are available to determine the wall shear stress in turbulent boundary layers. If sufficient data are obtained in the linear viscous sublayer y+4, the wall shear stress can be determined from the velocity gradient at the wall. However, it is often difficult to obtain adequate data within the linear sublayer in most experiments, especially if...

1.
George
,
W. K.
, and
Castillo
,
L.
,
1997
Zero-Pressure-Gradient Turbulent Boundary Layer
,”
Appl. Mech. Rev.
,
50
, No.
11
, pp.
689
729
.
2.
Tachie, M. F., Bergstrom, D. J., and Balachandar, R., 2000 “Mean and Fluctuating Velocity Components in Smooth and Rough Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers,” 3rd International Symposium on Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer, Nagayo, Japan, pp. 183–189.
3.
Finley
,
P. J.
,
Chong Phoe
,
Khoo
, and
Jeck Poh
,
Chin
,
1966
, “
Velocity Measurements in a Thin Turbulent Wake Layer
,”
La Houille Blanche
,
21
, pp.
713
721
.
4.
Granville
,
P. S.
,
1976
, “
A Modified Law of the Wake for Turbulent Shear Layers
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
98
, pp.
578
580
.
5.
Krogstad
,
P. A.
,
Antonia
,
R. A.
, and
Browne
,
L. W. B.
,
1993
, “
Comparison between Rough- and Smooth-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
245
, pp.
599
617
.
6.
Schultz-Grunow, 1941, “New Frictional Resistant Law for Smooth Plates,” NACA TM 986.
7.
Osaka
,
H.
,
Kameda
,
T.
, and
Mochizuki
,
S.
,
1998
, “
Re-Examination of the Reynolds Number-Effects on the Mean Flow Quantities in a Smooth Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers
,”
JSME Int. J., Ser. B
,
41
, No.
1
, pp.
123
129
.
8.
Purtell
,
L. P.
,
Klebanoff
,
P. S.
, and
Buckley
,
F. T.
,
1981
, “
Turbulent Boundary Layer at Low Reynolds Number
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
24
, No.
5
, pp.
802
811
.
9.
Tachie
,
M. F.
,
Bergstrom
,
D. J.
, and
Balachandar
,
R.
,
2000
, “
Rough Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers in Shallow Open Channel Flows
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
122
, pp.
533
541
.
10.
ASCE Task Force
,
1963
, “
Friction Factors in Open Channel Flows
,”
J. Hydraulic Division
,
89
, No.
2
, pp.
97
143
.
11.
Schultz
,
M. P.
, and
Swain
,
G. W.
,
1999
, “
The Effect of Biofilms on Turbulent Boundary Layers
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
121
, pp.
44
51
.
12.
Coles
,
D.
,
1962
, “
The Turbulent Boundary Layer in a Compressible Fluid,” The Rand Corp.
,
Rep. R-403-PR.
13.
Tachie, M. F., Balachandar, R., and Bergstrom, D. J., 2001, “Boundary Layer Relaxation Behind a Forward Facing Step at low Reθ,” Accepted for publication, ASME J. Fluids Eng.
14.
Balachandar
,
R.
, and
Ramachandran
,
S.
,
1999
, “
Turbulent Boundary Layers in Low Reynolds Number Shallow Open Channel Flows
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
121
, pp.
684
689
.
15.
Balachandar, R., and Tachie, M. F., 2001, “Boundary Layer-Wake Interaction in Open Channel Flows,” In press: Exp. Fluids.
16.
Tachie, M. F., and Balachandar, R., 2001, “Velocity Profiles in Smooth- and Rough-Wall Turbulent Wakes,” In press: Exp. Fluids.
17.
Tachie
,
M. F.
,
Bergstrom
,
D. J.
, and
Kotey
,
N. A.
,
1999
, “
Leading Edge Effects on Smooth and Rough-Wall Turbulent Boundary Layers
,”
Mechanical Engineering Report WT99N1
,
University of Saskatchewan.
18.
Hoffmann
,
J. E.
, and
Mohammadi
,
K.
,
1991
, “
Velocity Profiles for Turbulent Boundary Layers Under Freestream Turbulence
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
113
, pp.
399
404
.
19.
White, F. M., 1974, Viscous Fluid Flow, McGraw-Hill, New York.
You do not currently have access to this content.