This paper describes measurements of the air entrained in experiments simulating the breaking bow wave of a ship for Froude numbers between two and three. The experiments and the characteristics of the wave itself are detailed in T. Waniewski, 1999, “Air Entrainment by Bow Waves; Ph.D. theses, Calif. Inst. of Tech.” The primary mechanism for air entrainment is the impact of the plunging wave jet, and it was observed that the air bubbles were entrained in spatially periodic bubble clouds. The void fraction and bubble size distributions were measured in the entrainment zone. There were indications that the surface disturbances described in Waniewski divide the plunging liquid jet sheet into a series of plunging jets, each of which produces a bubble cloud.
Measurements of Air Entrainment by Bow Waves
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Fluids Engineering Division June 4, 1999; revised manuscript received October 17, 2000. Associate Editors: M. Sommerfeld and J. Katz.
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Waniewski, T. A., Brennen, C. E., and Raichlen, F. (October 17, 2000). "Measurements of Air Entrainment by Bow Waves ." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. March 2001; 123(1): 57–63. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1340622
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