The present study shows that the Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor for turbulent flow depends both on the nature of the surface and the boundary conditions of the flow. Contrary to the case of turbulent boundary layers with k-type surface roughness, the measured anisotropy invariants of the Reynolds stress tensor over a series of spanwise square bars separated by rectangular cavities (k-type) in duct flows show that roughness increases the anisotropy. There is a similarity between the effect of roughness on channel flow turbulence and that on pipe flow turbulence. The present data show that the effect of introducing a surface roughness significantly perturbs the entire thickness of the turbulent flow.

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