Fluids in motion can separate into regions of higher and lower energy (temperature); this is called “energy separation.” The present study concerns the mechanism of energy separation in a free, circular, air jet, including the effects of acoustic excitation. Starting with the initial energy separation occurring in the boundary layer inside the nozzle, the energy separation in a jet begins to be affected by the action of vortices from an axial location, measured from the jet exit, of about 0.3D (D is the diameter of nozzle exit), becomes intensified at about 0.5D, begins to be diffused from about 1D, and there is no discernible energy separation at about 14D. The entrainment of the ambient fluid considerably affects the energy separation, and its effects appear at axial locations between about 6D and 8D. The present definition of the energy separation factor renders its distribution independent of the jet Reynolds number; except for axial locations between about 0.3D and 4D. The development of energy separation in the region close to the nozzle exit is faster when the jet Reynolds number is higher. Acoustic excitation not only enhances the energy separation, but also accelerates its diffusion. This effect is greatest for axial locations between about 1D and 4D. The fact that the acoustic excitation has a strong effect on the vortex structure and the energy separation provides good evidence that the convective that the convective that the convective movement of vortices is the cause of energy separation in jets.

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