Three-dimensional turbulent viscous flow analyses for hydraulic turbine elbow draft tubes are performed by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations closed with a two-equation turbulence model. The predicted pressure recovery factor and flow behavior in the draft tube with a wide range of swirling flows at the inlet agree well with experimental data. During the validation of the Navier-Stokes flow analysis, particular attention was paid to the effect of grid size on the accuracy of the numerical result and the importance of accurately specifying the inlet flow condition.

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