An experimental investigation of the airflow through various axisymmetric intake ports of a motored reciprocating engine is reported. Detailed velocity field measurements obtained by laser Doppler anemometry and for steady and various unsteady flow conditions are presented together with valve discharge coefficients from steady flow tests. The results showed that over the lift range investigated the valve flow exhibited various regimes indicated by the changes in the flow pattern at the valve exit. With a 45-deg seat angle, four regimes were identified compared to three in the case of a 60-deg valve. The overall behavior of the 45-deg valve, however, was found to be generally better. Rounding of the edges of the 45-deg valve reduced the number of flow regimes to two with marked improvements on discharge coefficient. The flow angle at the valve exit depended less on the flow regimes and more on the cylinder confinement, in the absence of which the transition from one regime to another was delayed. The mean flow pattern at the valve exit was found to be insensitive to flow unsteadiness, piston confinement and valve operation and thus could be predicted with reasonable accuracy from steady flow tests. The in-cylinder flow characteristics were also insensitive to valve operation, but strongly depended on piston interaction, flow unsteadiness and residual effects from the previous cycle.

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