This paper designs a hydraulic vibration energy recovery system of speed bump that can recover vehicle vibration energy while decelerating the vehicle. Using hydraulic fluid as the energy recovery medium for deceleration, according to the speed range of vehicles passing through the speed bump, a design scheme for the hydraulic vibration energy recovery device for speed bump with a combination of split generation and continuous generation is proposed. Based on the coupling characteristics of the vehicle-speed bump-hydraulic transducer at different speeds of the vehicle, a joint simulation model was established to study the speed bump power generation module. Based on the simulation results, the hydraulic system operating parameters and component types were determined. Finally, a simulation test was conducted on an improved test-bed to test the power generation capability of the system.