Abstract

In the present work, the forced-convection heat transfer features of different nanofluids in a circular channel with porous baffles are numerically investigated. Nanofluid flow in the porous area is simulated by the simultaneous use of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer and two-phase mixture models. The flow is considered to be laminar, two-dimensionall, steady, axially symmetric, and incompressible. The simulations are conducted in Fluent software and by using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. The influences of various parameters, including Reynolds number, volume fractions of nanoparticles, Darcy number, porous region height, and various nanofluid types on the nanofluid flows and their thermal energy transfer features, are investigated. Results show that porous blocks significantly change the flow characteristics and thermal energy transfer features. For instance, at low Darcy numbers, the permeability of the porous region decreases, and the porous baffles have greater resistance against the nanofluid flow. As a result, the vortex area becomes stronger and taller, and streamlines near obstacles are tighter. However, in high Darcy numbers, due to the high permeability of the porous medium, the flow will be the same as the flow in the channel without barriers, and the porous baffles will not have much influence on the flow. For example, at Darcy number Da = 10-4 the vortex area almost disappears. The growth of conductivity ratio increases the local Nu in the vicinity of the barriers. Properties of the porous medium and nanofluid flow affect the thermal energy transfer rate, and it can be improved by making appropriate changes to these features.

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