This study aims to analyze the effect of piston bowl geometry on the combustion and emission performance of the syngas fueled homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, which operates under lean air–fuel mixture conditions for power plant usage. Three different piston bowl geometries were used with a reduction of piston bowl depth and squish area ratio of the baseline piston bowl with the same compression ratio of 17.1. Additionally, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is used to control the maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR) of syngas fueled HCCI engines. To simulate the combustion process at medium load (5 bar IMEP) and high loads of (8 and 10) bar IMEP, ANSYS Forte CFD package was used, and the calculated results were compared with Aceves et al.'s Multi-zone HCCI model, using the same chemical kinetics set (Gri-Mech 3.0). All calculations were accomplished at maximum brake torque (MBT) conditions, by sweeping the air–fuel mixture temperature at IVC (TIVC).
This study reveals that the TIVC of the air–fuel mixture and the heat loss rate through the wall are the main factors that influence combustion phasing by changing the piston bowl geometry. It also finds that although pistons B and C give high thermal efficiency, they cannot be used for the combustion process, due to the very high MPRR and NOx emissions. Even though the baseline piston shows high MPRR, it is reduced, and reveals an acceptable range of (10–12) bar/degree, using 30 % EGR.