Abstract

The case for developing novel technologies for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is fast gaining traction owing to increasing levels of anthropogenic CO2 being emitted into the atmosphere. Here, we have studied the hydrate-based carbon dioxide capture and separation process from a fundamental viewpoint by exploring the use of various packed bed media to enhance the kinetics of hydrate formation using pure CO2 as the hydrate former. We established the fixed bed reactor (FBR) configuration as a superior option over the commonly used stirred tank reactor (STR) setups typically used for hydrate formation studies by showing enhanced hydrate formation kinetics using the former. For the various packing material studied, we have observed silica gel with 100 nm pore size to return the best kinetic performance, corresponding to a water to hydrate conversion of 28 mol% for 3 h of hydrate growth. The fundamental results obtained in the present study set up a solid foundation for follow-up works with a more applied perspective and should be of interest to researchers working in the carbon dioxide capture and storage and gas hydrate fields alike.

References

References
1.
Carapellucci
,
R.
, and
Milazzo
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Membrane Systems for CO2 Capture and Their Integration With Gas Turbine Plants
,”
J. Power Energy
,
217
(
5
), pp.
505
517
. 10.1243/095765003322407557
2.
Kumar
,
R.
,
Linga
,
P.
,
Ripmeester
,
J. A.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
, “
Two-Stage Clathrate Hydrate/Membrane Process for Pre-Combustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen
,”
J. Environ. Eng.
,
135
(
6
), pp.
411
417
. 10.1061/(ASCE)EE.1943-7870.0000002
3.
Aaron
,
D.
, and
Tsouris
,
C.
,
2005
, “
Separation of CO2 From Flue Gas: A Review
,”
Sep. Sci. Technol.
,
40
(
1-3
), pp.
321
348
. 10.1081/SS-200042244
4.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Sakpal
,
T.
,
Linga
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Impact of Fly Ash Impurity on the Hydrate-Based Gas Separation Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture From a Flue Gas Mixture
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
53
(
23
), pp.
9849
9859
. 10.1021/ie5001955
5.
Linga
,
P.
,
Kumar
,
R.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2007
, “
The Clathrate Hydrate Process for Post and Pre Combustion Capture of Carbon Dioxide
,”
J. Hazard Mater
,
149
(
3
), pp.
625
629
. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.06.086
6.
Sloan
,
E. D.
, and
Koh
,
C. A.
,
2008
,
Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases
, 3rd ed.,
CRC
,
New York
.
7.
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Choudhary
,
N.
,
Barmecha
,
V.
,
Kushwaha
,
O. S.
,
Pande
,
N. K.
,
Chugh
,
P.
,
Roy
,
S.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2019
, “
Methane Recovery From Marine Gas Hydrates: A Bench Scale Study in Presence of Low Dosage Benign Additives
,”
Appl. Energy
,
253
, p.
113566
. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.113566
8.
Babu
,
P.
,
Yee
,
D.
,
Linga
,
P.
,
Palmer
,
A.
,
Khoo
,
B. C.
,
Tan
,
T. S.
, and
Rangsunvigit
,
P.
, “
Morphology of Methane Hydrate Formation in Porous Media
,”
Energy Fuels
,
27
(
6
), pp.
3364
3372
. 10.1021/ef4004818
9.
Makogon
,
Y. F.
,
Holditch
,
S. A.
, and
Makogon
,
T. Y.
, “
Natural Gas-Hydrates—A Potential Energy Source for the 21st Century
,”
J. Petrol Sci. Eng.
,
56
(
1–3
), pp.
14
31
. 10.1016/j.petrol.2005.10.009
10.
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Veluswamy
,
H. P.
,
Kumar
,
R.
, and
Linga
,
P.
,
2020
, “
Rapid Methane Storage via sII Hydrates at Ambient Temperature
,”
Appl. Energy
,
269
, p.
115142
. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115142
11.
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Barmecha
,
V.
,
Kushwaha
,
O. S.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Kinetic Promotion of Methane Hydrate Formation by Combining Anionic and Silicone Surfactants: Scalability Promise of Methane Storage Due to Prevention of Foam Formation
,”
J. Chem. Thermodyn.
,
117
, pp.
248
255
. 10.1016/j.jct.2017.09.029
12.
Babu
,
P.
,
Nambiar
,
A.
,
Chong
,
Z. R.
,
Daraboina
,
N.
,
Albeirutty
,
M.
, and
Bamaga
,
O. A.
,
2020
, “
Hydrate-based Desalination [HyDesal] Process Employing a Novel Prototype Design
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
218
, p.
115563
. 10.1016/j.ces.2020.115563
13.
Tajima
,
H.
,
Yamasaki
,
A.
, and
Kiyono
,
F.
,
2004
, “
Energy Consumption Estimation for Greenhouse Gas Separation Processes by Clathrate Hydrate Formation
,”
Energy
,
29
(
11
), pp.
1713
1729
. 10.1016/j.energy.2004.03.003
14.
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Kumar
,
A.
,
Sakpal
,
T.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Influence of Porous Media on Hydrate Formation Kinetics
,”
ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng.
,
3
(
6
), pp.
1205
1214
. 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00171
15.
Alessandro
,
D. M. D.
,
Smit
,
B.
, and
Long
,
J. R.
,
2010
, “
Carbon Dioxide Capture: Prospects for New Materials
,”
Angew Chem. Int. Ed.
,
49
(
35
), pp.
6058
6082
. 10.1002/anie.201000431
16.
Englezos
,
P.
, and
Lee
,
J. D.
, “
Gas Hydrates: A Cleaner Source of Energy and Opportunity for Innovative Technologies
,”
Korean J. Chem. Eng.
,
22
(
5
), pp.
671
681
. 10.1007/BF02705781
17.
Linga
,
P.
,
Daraboina
,
N.
,
Ripmeester
,
J. A.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Enhanced Rate of Gas Hydrate Formation in a Fixed Bed Column Filled With Sand Compared to a Stirred Vessel
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
68
(
1
), pp.
617
623
. 10.1016/j.ces.2011.10.030
18.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Sakpal
,
T.
,
Linga
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Contact Medium and Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Kinetics
,”
Fuel
,
105
, pp.
664
671
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.10.031
19.
Kang
,
S. P.
, and
Lee
,
Y. W.
,
2010
, “
Kinetic Behaviors of CO2 Hydrate in Porous Media and Effect of Kinetic Promoter on the Formation Kinetics
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
65
(
5
), pp.
1840
1845
. 10.1016/j.ces.2009.11.027
20.
Linga
,
P.
,
Kumar
,
R.
,
Lee
,
J. D.
,
Ripmeester
,
J.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2010
, “
A New Apparatus to Enhance the Rate of Gas Hydrate Formation: Application to Capture of Car bon Dioxide
,”
Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control
,
4
(
4
), pp.
630
637
. 10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.12.014
21.
Babu
,
P.
,
Linga
,
P.
,
Kumar
,
R.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2015
, “
A Review of the Hydrate Based Gas Separation (HBGS) Process for Carbon Dioxide Pre-Combustion Capture
,”
Energy
,
85
, pp.
261
279
. 10.1016/j.energy.2015.03.103
22.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Sakpal
,
T.
,
Linga
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Enhanced Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation Kinetics in a Fixed Bed Reactor Filled With Metallic Packing
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
122
, pp.
78
85
. 10.1016/j.ces.2014.09.019
23.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Kumar
,
R.
, and
Linga
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Gas Hydrates
,”
ICGH -8
,
Beijing, China
,
July 28–Aug. 1
.
24.
Smith
,
J. M.
,
Van Ness
,
H. C.
, and
Abbott
,
M. M.
,
2001
,
Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
, 6th ed.,
McGraw-Hill Inc.
,
New York
.
25.
Pruppacher
,
H. R.
, and
Klett
,
J. D.
,
1997
,
Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation
, 2nd ed.,
Kluwer Academic Publishers
,
Dordrecht
.
26.
Babu
,
P.
,
Kumar
,
R.
, and
Linga
,
P.
,
2013
, “
A new Porous Material to Enhance the Kinetics of Clathrate Process: Application to pre Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture
,”
Environ. Sci. Technol.
,
47
(
22
), pp.
13191
13198
. 10.1021/es403516f
27.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Sakpal
,
T.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2015
, “
Influence of Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitor on Methane Clathrate Hydrate Formation and Dissociation Kinetics
,”
Energy Technol.
,
3
(
7
), pp.
717
725
. 10.1002/ente.201500004
28.
Sloan
,
E. D.
,
2003
, “
Fundamental Principles and Applications of Natural Gas Hydrates
,”
Nature
,
426
(
6964
), pp.
353
359
. 10.1038/nature02135
29.
Nixdorf
,
J.
,
1996
, “
Experimentelle und Theoretische Untersuchung der Hydratbildung von Erdgasen Unter Betriebsbedingungen
,”
Dissertation
,
Universität Karlsruhe TH
.
30.
Ripmeester
,
J. A.
,
Tse
,
J. A.
,
Ratcliffe
,
C. I.
, and
Powell
,
B. M.
,
1987
, “
A New Clathrate Hydrate Structure
,”
Nature
,
325
(
6100
), pp.
135
136
. 10.1038/325135a0
31.
Natarajan
,
V.
,
Bishnoi
,
P. R.
, and
Kalogerakis
,
N.
,
1994
, “
Induction Phenomena in Gas Hydrate Nucleation
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
49
(
13
), pp.
2075
2087
. 10.1016/0009-2509(94)E0026-M
32.
Adeyemo
,
A.
,
Kumar
,
R.
,
Linga
,
P.
,
Ripmeester
,
J.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Capture of Carbon Dioxide From Flue or Fuel Gas Mixtures by Clathrate Crystallization in a Silica Gel Column
,”
Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control
,
4
(
3
), pp.
478
485
. 10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.11.011
33.
Zang
,
X.
,
Fan
,
S.
,
Liang
,
D.
,
Li
,
D.
, and
Chen
,
G.
,
2008
, “
Influence of 3A Molecular Sieve on Tetrahydrofuran (THF) Hydrate Formation
,”
Sci. China Ser. B: Chem.
,
51
(
9
), pp.
893
900
. 10.1007/s11426-008-0035-2
34.
Zang
,
X.
,
Du
,
J.
,
Liang
,
D.
,
Fan
,
S.
, and
Tang
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Influence of A-Type Zeolite on Methane Hydrate Formation
,”
Chinese J. Chem. Eng.
,
17
(
5
), pp.
21634
21661
. 10.1016/S1004-9541(08)60287-6
35.
Rice
,
W.
,
2003
, “
Proposed System For Hydrogen Production From Methane Hydrate With Sequestering of Carbon Dioxide Hydrate
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
125
(
4
), pp.
253
257
. 10.1115/1.1615795
36.
Arora
,
A.
,
Kumar
,
K.
,
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Kumar
,
P.
, and
Balomajumder
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Different Fixed Bed Media on the Performance of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate for Hydrate Based CO2 Capture
,”
Mater. Des.
,
90
, pp.
1186
1191
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.049
37.
Uddin
,
M.
,
Coombe
,
D.
,
Law
,
D.
, and
Gunter
,
B.
,
2008
, “
Numerical Studies of Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition in a Geological Reservoir
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
130
(
3
), p.
032501
. 10.1115/1.2956978
38.
Uddin
,
M.
,
Coombe
,
D.
,
Wright
,
F.
, and
Gunter
,
B.
,
2008
, “
Modeling of CO2-Hydrate Formation in Geological Reservoirs by Injection of CO2 Gas
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
130
(
3
), p.
032502
. 10.1115/1.2956979
39.
Arora
,
A.
,
Cameotra
,
S. S.
, and
Balomajumder
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Techniques for Exploitation of Gas Hydrate (Clathrates) an Untapped Resource of Methane Gas
,”
Microb. Biochem. Technol.
,
7
(
2
), pp.
108
111
. 10.4172/1948-5948.1000190
40.
Shuxia
,
L.
,
Shuang
,
L.
, and
Pang
,
W.
,
2020
, “
Description of Gas Hydrate Using Digital Core Technology
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
142
(
6
), p.
062901
. 10.1115/1.4045533
You do not currently have access to this content.