Abstract

Recently, gas hydrates based technologies have been exploited for few novel applications such as storage and transpiration of natural gas, gas mixtures separation, CO2 capture, and seawater desalination. Most of these applications are currently facing a challenge of low rate of gas hydrate formation. Chemical additives like surfactants can play a role of a good kinetic promoter for gas hydrate formation. The present study reports the application of biosurfactant for enhancing gas hydrate formation. Biosurfactant was produced by Bacillus subtilis strain A21. These types of microbes show their presence in the real gas hydrate sites also. The surfactin was characterized using many sophisticated techniques, conforming the formation of surfactin. It was used in the presence of fixed bed media of silica gel, and it was observed that surfactin in the presence of silica gel increased the consumption of moles of methane as well as reduced the induction time also as well as the conversion was also increased up to 27.9% for 390 min for 1000 ppm surfactin hence indicating it to be a clean and novel promoter of methane hydrate formation in combination with silica gel which can replace its synthetic counterparts which have environmental concerns.

References

References
1.
Zhang
,
Z. G.
,
Wang
,
Y.
,
Gao
,
L. F.
,
Zhang
,
Y.
, and
Liu
,
C. S.
,
2012
, “
Marine Gas Hydrate: Future Energy or Environmental Killer?
Energy Procedia
,
16
(
Part B
), pp.
933
938
. 10.1016/j.egypro.2012.01.149
2.
Chong
,
Z. R.
,
Yang
,
S. H. B.
,
Babu
,
P.
,
Linga
,
P.
, and
Li
,
X.-S.
,
2014
, “
Review of Natural Gas Hydrate as an Energy Resource: Prospects and Challenges
,”
Appl. Energy
,
162
, pp.
1633
1652
. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.061
3.
Demirbas
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Methane Hydrate as Potential Energy Resource: Part 1—Importance, Resource and Recovery Facilities
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
51
(
7
), pp.
1547
1561
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2010.02.013
4.
Chaturvedi
,
E.
,
Prasad
,
N.
, and
Mandal
,
A.
,
2018
, “
Enhanced Formation of Methane Hydrate Using a Novel Synthesized Anionic Surfactant for Application in Storage and Transportation of Natural Gas
,”
J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
,
56
, pp.
246
257
. 10.1016/j.jngse.2018.06.016
5.
Kumar
,
R.
,
Linga
,
P.
,
Moudrakovski
,
I.
,
Ripmeester
,
J. A.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2008
, “
Structure and Kinetics of Gas Hydrates From Methane/Ethane/Propane Mixtures Relevant to the Design of Natural Gas Hydrate Storage and Transport Facilities
,”
AIChE J.
,
54
(
8
), pp.
2132
2144
. 10.1002/aic.11527
6.
Hao
,
W.
,
Wang
,
J.
,
Fan
,
S.
, and
Hao
,
W.
,
2008
, “
Evaluation and Analysis Method for Natural Gas Hydrate Storage and Transportation Processes
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
49
(
10
), pp.
2546
2553
. 10.1016/j.enconman.2008.05.016
7.
Hester
,
K. C.
, and
Brewer
,
P. G.
,
2009
, “
Clathrate Hydrate in Nature
,”
Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci.
,
1
(
1
), pp.
303
327
. 10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163824
8.
Sloan
,
E. D.
, and
Koh
,
C. A.
,
2008
,
Clathrate Hydrate of Natural Gases
, 3rd ed.,
CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
9.
Arora
,
A.
,
Cameotra
,
S. S.
,
Kumar
,
R.
,
Balomajumder
,
C.
,
Singh
,
A. K.
,
Santhakumari
,
B.
,
Kumar
,
P.
, and
Laik
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Biosurfactant as a Promoter of Methane Hydrate Formation: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Studies
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
6
, p.
20893
. 10.1038/srep20893
10.
Arora
,
A.
,
Kumar
,
K.
,
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Kumar
,
P.
, and
Balomajumder
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Different Fixed Bed Media on the Performance of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate for Hydrate Based CO2 Capture
,”
Mater. Des.
,
90
, pp.
1186
1191
. 10.1016/j.matdes.2015.06.049
11.
Partoon
,
B.
, and
Javanmardi
,
J.
,
2013
, “
Effect of Mixed Thermodynamic and Kinetic Hydrate Promoters on Methane Hydrate Phase Boundary and Formation Kinetics
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
,
58
(
3
), pp.
501
509
. 10.1021/je301153t
12.
Wang
,
W.
,
Huang
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
H.
,
Tan
,
Z.
,
Chen
,
C.
, and
Sun
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Methane Hydrate With a High Capacity and a High Formation Rate Promoted by Biosurfactant
,”
Chem. Comm.
,
48
(
95
), pp.
11638
11640
. 10.1039/c2cc35603a
13.
Meleshkin
,
A. V.
,
Bartashevich
,
M. V.
,
Glezer
,
V. V.
, and
Glebov
,
R. A.
,
2020
, “
Effect of Surfactants on Synthesis of Gas Hydrates
,”
J. Eng. Thermophys.
,
29
(
2
), pp.
264
266
. 10.1134/S1810232820020083
14.
Link
,
D. D.
,
Ladner
,
E. P.
,
Elsen
,
H. A.
, and
Taylor
,
C. E.
,
2003
, “
Formation and Dissociation Studies for Optimizing the Uptake of Methane by Methane Hydrate
,”
Fluid Ph. Equilibria
,
211
(
1
), pp.
1
10
. 10.1016/S0378-3812(03)00153-5
15.
Forni
,
C.
,
Braglia
,
R.
,
Harren
,
F. J.
, and
Cristescu
,
S. M.
,
2012
, “
Stress Responses of Duckweed (Lemna Minor L.) and Water Velvet (Azolla Filiculoides Lam.) to Anionic Surfactant Sodium-Dodecyl-Sulphate (SDS)
,”
Aquat. Toxicol.
,
110–111
, pp.
107
113
. 10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.12.017
16.
Arechabala
,
B.
,
Coiffard
,
C.
,
Rivalland
,
P.
,
Coiffard
,
L. J.
, and
de, Roeck-Holtzhauer
,
Y.
,
1999
, “
Comparison of Cytotoxicity of Various Surfactant Tested on Normal Human Fibroblast Cultures Using the Neutral red Test, MTT Assay and LDH Release
,”
J. Appl. Toxicol.
,
19
(
3
), pp.
163
165
. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1263(199905/06)19:33.0.CO,2-H
17.
Liu
,
K.
,
Sun
,
Y.
,
Cao
,
M.
,
Wang
,
J.
,
Lu
,
J. R.
, and
Xu
,
H.
,
2020
, “
Rational Design, Properties, and Applications of Biosurfactants: A Short Review of Recent Advances
,”
COCIS
,
45
, pp.
57
67
. 10.1016/j.cocis.2019.12.005
18.
Jiang
,
J.
,
Zu
,
Y.
,
Li
,
X.
,
Meng
,
Q.
, and
Long
,
X.
,
2020
, “
Recent Progress Towards Industrial Rhamnolipids Fermentation: Process Optimization and Foam Control
,”
Bioresour. Technol.
,
298
, p.
122394
. 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122394
19.
Shekhar
,
S.
,
Sundaramanickam
,
A.
, and
Balasubramanian
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Biosurfactant Producing Microbes and Their Potential Applications: A Review
,”
Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol.
,
45
(
14
), pp.
1522
1554
. 10.1080/10643389.2014.955631
20.
Jadav
,
S.
,
Sakthipriya
,
N.
,
Doble
,
M.
, and
Sangwai
,
J. S.
,
2017
, “
Effect of Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus Subtilis and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa on the Formation Kinetics of Methane Hydrate
,”
J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
,
43
, pp.
156
166
. 10.1016/j.jngse.2017.03.032
21.
Lanoil
,
B. D.
,
Sassen
,
R.
,
La
,
D. M. T.
,
Sweet
,
S. T.
, and
Nealson
,
K. H.
,
2001
, “
Bacteria and Archaea Physically Associated With Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate
,”
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
,
67
(
11
), pp.
5143
5153
. 10.1128/AEM.67.11.5143-5153.2001
22.
Rogers
,
R. E.
,
Kothapalli
,
C.
,
Lee
,
M. S.
, and
Woolsey
,
J. R.
,
2003
, “
Catalysis of Gas Hydrate by Biosurfactant in Seawater-Saturated Sand/Clay
,”
Can. J. Chem. Eng.
,
81
(
5
), pp.
973
980
. 10.1002/cjce.5450810508
23.
Rogers
,
R.
,
Radich
,
J.
, and
Xiong
,
S.
,
2011
, “
The Multiple Roles of Microbes in the Formation, Dissociation and Stabilite of Seafloor Gas Hydrate
,”
7th International Conference on Gas Hydrate (ICGH)
,
Edinburgh, Scotland
,
July 17–21
, pp.
1939
1949
.
24.
Singh
,
A.
, and
Cameotra
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Efficiency of Lipopeptide Biosurfactant in Removal of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals From Contaminated Soil
,”
Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int.
,
20
(
10
), pp.
7367
7376
. 10.1007/s11356-013-1752-4
25.
Kim
,
K. M.
,
Lee
,
J. Y.
,
Kim
,
C. K.
, and
Kang
,
J. S.
,
2009
, “
Isolation and Characterization of Surfactin Produced by Bacillus Polyfermenticus KJS-2
,”
Arch. Pharm. Res.
,
32
(
5
), pp.
711
715
. 10.1007/s12272-009-1509-2
26.
Smith
,
J. M.
,
VanNess
,
H. C.
, and
Abbott
,
M. M.
,
2001
,
Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics
, 6th ed,
McGraw-Hill Inc
,
New York
.
27.
Linga
,
P.
,
Kumar
,
R.
,
Lee
,
J. D.
,
Ripmeester
,
J.
, and
Englezos
,
P.
,
2010
, “
A New Apparatus to Enhance the Rate of Gas Hydrate Formation: Application to Capture of Carbon Dioxide
,”
Int. J. Greenh. Gas Control
,
4
(
4
), p.
630637
. 10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.12.014
28.
Ripmeester
,
J. A.
, and
Ratcliffe
,
C. I.
,
1988
, “
Low-Temperature Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 NMR of Solid Methane Hydrate: Structure, Cage Occupancy, and Hydration Number
,”
J. Phys. Chem.
,
92
(
2
), pp.
337
339
. 10.1021/j100313a018
29.
Sen
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Surfactin: Biosynthesis, Genetics and Potential Applications
,”
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
,
672
, pp.
316
323
. 10.1007/978-1-4419-5979-9_24
30.
Raaijmakers
,
J. M.
,
de
,
B. I.
,
Nybroe
,
O.
, and
Ongena
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Natural Functions of Lipopeptides From Bacillus and Pseudomonas: More Than Surfactant and Antibiotics
,”
FEMS Microbiol. Rev.
,
34
(
6
), pp.
1037
1062
. 10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00221.x
31.
Al-Ajlani
,
M. M.
,
Sheikh
,
M. A.
,
Ahmad
,
Z.
, and
Hasnain
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Production of Surfactin From Bacillus Subtilis MZ-7 Grown on Pharmamedia Commercial Medium
,”
Microb. Cell Fact.
,
6
(
1
), p.
17
. 10.1186/1475-2859-6-17
32.
Das
,
P.
,
Mukherjee
,
S.
, and
Sen
,
R.
,
2008
, “
Antimicrobial Potential of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Derived From a Marine Bacillus Circulans
,”
J. Appl. Microbiol.
,
104
(
6
), pp.
1675
1684
. 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03701.x
33.
Sakthipriya
,
N.
,
Doble
,
M.
, and
Sangwai
,
J. S.
,
2015
, “
Action of Biosurfactant Producing Thermophilic Bacillus Subtilis on Waxy Crude Oil and Long Chain Paraffins
,”
Int. Biodeter. Biodegr.
,
105
, pp.
168
177
. 10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.09.004
34.
Cooper
,
D. G.
,
Macdonald
,
C. R.
,
Duff
,
S. J.
, and
Kosaric
,
N.
,
1981
, “
Enhanced Production of Surfactin From Bacillus Subtilis by Continuous Product Removal and Metal Cation Additions
,”
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
,
42
(
3
), pp.
408
412
. 10.1128/AEM.42.3.408-412.1981
35.
Mulligan
,
C. N.
,
2005
, “
Environmental Applications for Biosurfactant
,”
Environ. Pollut.
,
133
(
2
), pp.
183
198
. 10.1016/j.envpol.2004.06.009
36.
Sekhon
,
K. K.
, and
Rahman
,
P. K. S. M.
,
2014
, “
Rhamnolipid Biosurfactant—Past, Present, and Future Scenario of Global Market
,”
Front. Microbiol.
,
5
, p.
454
. 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00454
37.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Sakpal
,
T.
,
Linga
,
P.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Contact Medium and Surfactant on Carbon Dioxide Clathrate Hydrate Kinetics
,”
Fuel
,
105
, pp.
664
671
. 10.1016/j.fuel.2012.10.031
38.
Ando
,
N.
,
Kuwabara
,
Y.
, and
Mori
,
Y. H.
,
2012
, “
Surfactant Effects on Hydrate Formation in an Unstirred Gas/Liquid System: An Experimental Study Using Methane and Micelle-Forming Surfactant
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
73
, pp.
79
85
. 10.1016/j.ces.2012.01.038
39.
Karaaslan
,
U.
,
Uluneye
,
E.
, and
Parlaktuna
,
M.
,
2002
, “
Effect of an Anionic Surfactant on Different Type of Hydrate Structures
,”
J. Petrol. Sci. Eng.
,
35
(
1–2
), pp.
49
57
. 10.1016/S0920-4105(02)00163-8
40.
Handa
,
Y.
, and
Tse
,
J. S.
,
1986
, “
Thermodynamics Properties of Empty Lattices of Structure I and Structure II Clathrate Hydrate
,”
J. Phys. Chem.
,
90
(
22
), pp.
5917
5921
. 10.1021/j100280a092
41.
Kashchiev
,
D.
, and
Firoozabadi
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Induction Time in Crystallization of Gas Hydrate
,”
J. Cryst. Growth
,
250
(
3–4
), pp.
499
515
. 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)02461-2
42.
Radich
,
J.
,
Rogers
,
R. E.
,
French
,
W. T.
, and
Zhang
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Biochemical Reaction and Diffusion in Seafloor Gas Hydrate Capillaries: Implications for Gas Hydrate Stability
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
64
(
20
), pp.
4278
4285
. 10.1016/j.ces.2009.06.073
43.
Dearman
,
J. L.
,
2007
, “
Gas Hydrate Formation in Gulf of Mexico Sediments
,”
Ph.D. dissertation
,
Mississippi State University, Swalm School of Chemical Engineering
, April 9, 2007.
44.
Sloan
,
E. D.
,
2003
, “
Fundamental Principles and Applications of Natural Gas Hydrate
,”
Nature
,
426
(
6964
), pp.
353
363
. 10.1038/nature02135
45.
Carvajal-Ortiz
,
H.
, and
Pratt
,
L. M.
, “
Effects of Clay Minerals and Biosurfactant on Isotopic and Molecular Characteristics of Methane Encaged in Pressure Vessel Gas Hydrate
,”
Org. Geochem.
,
60
, pp.
83
92
. 10.1016/j.orggeochem.2013.05.005
46.
Zhong
,
Y.
, and
Rogers
,
R. E.
,
2000
, “
Surfactant Effects on Gas Hydrate Formation
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
55
(
19
), pp.
4175
4187
. 10.1016/S0009-2509(00)00072-5
47.
Rice
,
W.
,
2003
, “
Proposed System for Hydrogen Production From Methane Hydrate With Sequestering of Carbon Dioxide Hydrate
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
125
(
4
), pp.
253
257
. 10.1115/1.1615795
48.
Uddin
,
M.
,
Coombe
,
D.
,
Law
,
D.
, and
Gunter
,
B.
,
2008
, “
Numerical Studies of Gas Hydrate Formation and Decomposition in a Geological Reservoir
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
130
(
3
), p.
032501
. 10.1115/1.2956978
49.
Shuxia
,
L.
,
Shuang
,
L.
, and
Pang
,
W.
,
2020
, “
Description of Gas Hydrate Using Digital Core Technology
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
142
(
6
), p.
062901
. 10.1115/1.4045533
50.
Vedachalam
,
N.
,
Ramesh
,
S.
,
Jyothi
,
V. B. N.
,
Ramadass
,
G. A.
,
Atmanand
,
M. A.
, and
Manivannan
,
P.
,
2020
, “
Techno-Economic Viability Studies on Methane Gas Production From Gas Hydrate Reservoir in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, East Coast of India
,”
J. Nat. Gas Sci. Eng.
,
77
, p.
103253
. 10.1016/j.jngse.2020.103253
51.
Saw
,
V. K.
,
Gudala
,
M.
,
Udayabhanu
,
G.
,
Mandal
,
A.
, and
Laik
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Formation and Its Dissociation in Presence of Non-Ionic Surfactant Tergitol
,”
J. Unconv. Oil Gas Resour.
,
6
, pp.
54
59
. 10.1016/j.juogr.2013.07.001
52.
Choudhary
,
N.
,
Chakrabarty
,
S.
,
Roy
,
S.
, and
Kumar
,
R.
,
2019
, “
A Comparison of Different Water Models for Melting Point Calculation of Methane Hydrate Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations
,”
Chem. Phys.
,
516
, pp.
6
14
. 10.1016/j.chemphys.2018.08.036
53.
Arora
,
A.
,
Cameotra
,
S. S.
, and
Balomajumder
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Techniques for Exploitation of Gas Hydrate (Clathrates) an Untapped Resource of Methane Gas
,”
J. Microb. Biochem. Technol.
,
7
(
2
), pp.
108
111
. 10.4172/1948-5948.1000190
54.
Arora
,
A.
,
Kumar
,
A.
,
Bhattacharjee
,
G.
,
Balomajumder
,
C.
, and
Kumar
,
P.
,
2021
, “
Hydrate- Based Carbon Capture Process: Assessment of Various Packed Bed Systems for Boosted Kinetics of Hydrate Formation
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
143
(
3
), p.
030901
. 10.1115/1.4048304
55.
Shi
,
B.
,
Liu
,
Y.
,
Ding
,
L.
,
Lv
,
X.
, and
Gong
,
J.
,
2019
, “
New Simulator for Gas–Hydrate Slurry Stratified Flow Based on the Hydrate Kinetic Growth Model
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
141
(
1
), p.
012906
. 10.1115/1.4040932
You do not currently have access to this content.