To investigate the characteristics of oil distribution in porous media systems during a high water cut stage, sandstones with different permeability scales of 53.63 × 10−3 μm2 and 108.11 × 10−3 μm2 were imaged under a resolution of 4.12 μm during a water flooding process using X-ray tomography. Based on the cluster-size distribution of oil segmented from the tomography images and through classification using the shape factor and Euler number, the transformation of the oil distribution pattern in different injection stages was studied for samples with different pore structures. In general, the distribution patterns of an oil cluster continuously change during water injection. Large connected oil clusters break off into smaller segments. The sandstone with a higher permeability (108.11 × 10−3 μm2) shows the larger change in distribution pattern, and the remaining oil is trapped in the pores with a radius of approximately 7–12 μm. Meanwhile, some disconnected clusters merge together and lead to a re-connection during the high water cut period. However, the pore structure becomes compact and complex, the residual nonwetting phase becomes static and is difficult to move; and thus, all distribution patterns coexist during the entire displacement process and mainly distribute in pores with a radius of 8–12 μm. For the pore-scale entrapment characteristics of the oil phase during a high water cut period, different enhance oil recovery (EOR) methods should be considered in sandstones correspondent to each permeability scale.

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