Reservoir characterization is a process to make dependable reservoir models using available reservoir information. There are promising ensemble-based methods such as ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), ensemble smoother (ES), and ensemble smoother with multiple data assimilation (ES-MDA). ES-MDA is an iterative version of ES with inflated covariance matrix of measurement errors. It provides efficient and consistent global updates compared to EnKF and ES. Ensemble-based method might not work properly for channel reservoirs because its parameters are highly non-Gaussian. Thus, various parameterization methods are suggested in previous studies to handle nonlinear and non-Gaussian parameters. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) can figure out essential channel information, whereas level set method (LSM) has advantages on detailed channel border analysis in grid scale transforming parameters into Gaussianity. However, DCT and LSM have weaknesses when they are applied separately on channel reservoirs. Therefore, we propose a properly designed combination algorithm using DCT and LSM in ES-MDA. When DCT and LSM agree with each other on facies update results, a grid has relevant facies naturally. If not, facies is assigned depending on the average facies probability map from DCT and LSM. By doing so, they work in supplementary way preventing from wrong or biased decision on facies. Consequently, the proposed method presents not only stable channel properties such as connectivity and continuity but also similar pattern with the true. It also gives trustworthy future predictions of gas and water productions due to well-matched facies distribution according to the reference.
Enhanced History Matching of Gas Reservoirs With an Aquifer Using the Combination of Discrete Cosine Transform and Level Set Method in ES-MDA
Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 7, 2017; final manuscript received December 26, 2018; published online January 18, 2019. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.
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Kim, S., Jung, H., and Choe, J. (January 18, 2019). "Enhanced History Matching of Gas Reservoirs With an Aquifer Using the Combination of Discrete Cosine Transform and Level Set Method in ES-MDA." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. July 2019; 141(7): 072906. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042413
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