Produced water re-injection (PWRI) is an important economic and environmental-friendly option to convert waste to value with waterflooding operations. However, it often causes rapid injectivity decline. In the present study, a coreflood test on a low permeable core sample is carried out to investigate the injectivity decline behavior. An analytical model for well impedance (normalized reciprocal of injectivity) growth, along with probabilistic histograms of injectivity damage parameters, is applied to well injectivity decline prediction during produced water disposal in a thick low permeable formation (Völkersen field). An impedance curve with an unusual convex form is observed in both coreflood test and well behavior modeling; the impedance growth rate is lower during external filter cake build-up if compared with the deep bed filtration stage. Low reservoir rock permeability and, consequently, high values of filtration and formation damage coefficients lead to fast impedance growth during deep bed filtration; while external filter cake formation results in relatively slow impedance growth. A risk analysis employing probabilistic histograms of injectivity damage parameters is used to well behavior prediction under high uncertainty conditions.

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