The short-cycling operation of a heat pump decreases energy consumption efficiency. Short-cycling operations of ground source heat pump system (GSHP) occur when the ON/OFF control of a heat pump is used in a partial load condition. It is considered effective that GSHP with capacity controls installs to suppress short-cycling operations. However, there is no report on any continuous operations by capacity control GSHP in actual operations. We confirmed that GSHP (water to water) with capacity control operates short-cycling in the residence. Short-cycling operations occurred with a sudden load fluctuation due to opening or closing of the valves. We conducted effective verification experiments of the thermal storage device at the artificial heat load fluctuations condition. When the thermal storage device installed upstream brine circulation line of the heat pump with the capacity control, continuous operations are performed. It was under the condition at the heating heat load of 5 kW is turned ON/OFF every 20 min. In this case, energy consumption efficiency of a heat pump is 13% higher than the efficiency without the thermal storage device.

References

References
1.
Phetteplace
,
G.
,
2007
, “
Geothermal Heat Pumps
,”
J. Energy Eng.
,
133
(
1
), pp.
32
38
.
2.
Sanner
,
B.
,
2017
, “
Ground Source Heat Pumps—History, Development, Current Status, and Future Prospects
,”
12th IEA Heat Pump Conference
, Rotterdam, Netherlands, May 15--18, pp. 1–14.http://hpc2017.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/K.2.9.1-Ground-Source-Heat-Pumps-history-development-current-status-and-future-prospects.pdf
3.
Wan
,
R.
,
Kong
,
D.
, and
Guo
,
H.
,
2014
, “
Ground Source Heat Pump System: A Review of Current Status in China
,”
Open Fuels Energy Sci. J.
,
7
, pp.
129
134
.
4.
Johnston
,
D.
,
Lowe
,
R.
, and
Bell
,
M.
,
2005
, “
An Exploration of the Technical Feasibility of Achieving CO2 Emission Reductions in Excess of 60% Within the UK Housing Stock by the Year 2050
,”
Energy Policy
,
33
(
13
), pp.
1643
1659
.
5.
Patteeuw
,
D.
,
Reynders
,
G.
,
Bruninx
,
K.
,
Protopapadaki
,
C.
,
Delarue
,
E.
,
D'haeseleer
,
W.
,
Saelens
,
D.
, and
Helsen
,
L.
,
2015
, “
CO2-Abatement Cost of Residential Heat Pumps With Active Demand Response: Demand- and Supply-Side Effects
,”
Appl. Energy
,
156
, pp.
490
501
.
6.
Kazjonovs
,
J.
,
Sipkevics
,
A.
,
Jakovics
,
A.
,
Dancigs
,
A.
,
Bajare
,
D.
, and
Dancigs
,
L.
,
2014
, “
Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions
,”
Environ. Clim. Technol.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
18
22
.
7.
Shonder
,
J. A.
,
Martin
,
M. A.
,
Hughes
,
P. J.
, and
Thornton
,
J.
,
2000
, “
Geothermal Heat Pumps in K–12 Schools: A Case Study of the Lincoln, Nebraska Schools
,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No.
ORNL/TM-2000/80
.https://eber.ed.ornl.gov/pub/blddata/ORNL-TM-2000-80.pdf
8.
Song
,
J.
,
Lee
,
K.
,
Jeong
,
Y.
,
Cheong
,
S.
,
Lee
,
J.
,
Hwang
,
Y.
,
Lee
,
Y.
, and
Lee
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Heating Performance of a Ground Source Heat Pump System Installed in a School Building
,”
Sci. China Technol. Sci.
,
53
(
1
), pp.
80
84
.
9.
Michopoulos
,
A.
,
Tsikaloudaki
,
A.
,
Voulgari
,
V.
, and
Zachariadis
,
T.
,
2015
, “
Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Residential Buildings
,”
Proceedings World Geothermal Congress
, Melbourne, Australia, Apr. 19–25 pp. 1–9.https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/WGC/papers/WGC/2015/29014.pdf
10.
O'Connell
,
S.
, and
Cassidy
,
S. F.
,
2003
, “
Recent Large Scale Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations in Ireland
,”
International Geothermal Conference
, Reykjavik, Iceland, Sept. 14–17, pp. 12–18.
11.
Green
,
R.
,
2012
, “
The Effects of Cycling on Heat Pump Performance
,” Confidential Report, EA Technology, EA Technology, Chester, UK, Project No.
46640
.https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/65695/7389-effects-cycling-heat-pump-performance.pdf
12.
Cutis
,
R.
, and
Pine
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Effects of Cycling on Domestic GSHPs: Supporting Analysis to EA Technology, Simulation/Modelling
,” Mimer Energy Report, GeoEnergy, UK, Report No.
C207-R2
.https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/198854/mimer_report_on_modelling_cycling_of_heat_pumps.pdf
13.
Anifantis
,
A. S.
,
Pascuzzi
,
S.
, and
Mugnozza
,
G. S.
,
2016
, “
Geothermal Source Heat Pump Performance for a Greenhouse Heating System: An Experimental Study
,”
J. Agric. Eng.
,
47
(
3
), pp.
164
170
.
14.
Duarte Carvalho
,
A.
,
2015
, “
High Efficiency Ground Source Heat Pump Systems for Sustainable Building Space Conditioning
,”
University of Coimbra
, Coimbra University, Portugal.
15.
Kummert
,
M.
, and
Bernier
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Sub-Hourly Simulation of Residential Ground Coupled Heat Pump Systems
,”
Chart. Inst. Build. Serv. Eng.
,
29
(
1
), pp.
27
44
.
16.
Mowris
,
R.
, and
Jones
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Peak Demand and Energy Savings From Properly Sized and Matched Air Conditioners
,”
ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings
, Pacific Grove, CA, Aug. 17–22, pp.
1-196
1-208
.https://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2008/data/papers/1_692.pdf
17.
Thomas
,
P. C.
, and
Moller
,
S.
,
2006
, “
HVAC System Size—Getting It Right
,”
Clients Driving Innovation, Moving Ideas into Practice
, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
18.
James
,
W. P.
,
Cummings
,
J.
,
Sonne
,
J. K.
,
Vieira
,
R. K.
, and
Klongerbo
,
J. F.
,
1997
, “
The Effect of Residential Equipment Capacity on Energy Use, Demand, and Run-Time
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
,
103
(2), pp.
297
303
.
19.
Graham
,
C. I.
,
2016
, “
High-Performance HVAC
,” Whole Building Design Guide, Washington, DC, accessed Oct. 16, 2018, http://www.wbdg.org/resources/hvac.php
20.
Corbera ́n
,
J. M.
,
Donadello
,
D.
,
Galva ́n
,
I. M.
, and
Montagud
,
C.
,
2013
, “
Partialization Losses of ON/OFF Operation of Water-to-Water Refrigeration/Heat-Pump Units
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
36
, pp.
2251
2261
.
21.
Waddicor
,
D. A.
,
Fuentes
,
E.
,
Azar
,
M.
, and
Salom
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Partial Load Efficiency Degradation of a Water-to-Water Heat Pump Under Fixed Set-Point Control
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
106
, pp.
275
285
.
22.
Karlsson
,
F.
, and
Fahlen
,
P.
,
2008
, “
Impact of Design and Thermal Inertia on the Energy Saving Potential of Capacity Controlled Heat Pump Heating Systems
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
31
(
6
), pp.
1094
1103
.
23.
Karlsson
,
F.
,
2007
, “
Capacity Control of Residential Heat Pump Heating Systems
,” Chalmers University of Technology, Go¨teborg, Sweden, Report No.
D 2007:03
.https://www.sp.se/sv/units/risebuilt/energy/Documents/ETk/Karlsson_Capacity_control_residential_HP_heating_systems.pdf
24.
Coulter
,
W. H.
, and
Bullard
,
C. W.
,
1995
, “
An Experimental Analysis of Cycling Losses in Domestic Refrigerator-Freezers
,” Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center, Urbana, IL, Repot No.
TR-77
.https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/4820261.pdf
25.
Bjo¨rk
,
E.
,
2012
, “
Energy Efficiency Improvements in Household Refrigeration Cooling Systems
,”
TRITA REFR
, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
26.
Janssen
,
M. J. P.
,
Wit
,
J. A.
, and
Kuijpers
,
L. J. M.
,
1992
, “
Cycling Losses in Domestic Appliances: An Experimental and Theoretical Analysis
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
15
(
3
), pp.
152
158
.
27.
Ilic
,
S. M.
,
Hrnjak
,
P. S.
, and
Bullard
,
C. W.
,
2002
, “
Experimental Comparison of Continuous vs. Pulsed Flow Modulation in Vapor Compression Systems
,”
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference
, West Lafayette, IN.
28.
Ekren
,
O.
,
2017
, “
Refrigeration System: Capacity Modulation Methods
,”
We Are IntechOpen, the World's Leading Publisher of Open Access Books Built by Scientists, for Scientists
, IntechOpen, London, UK, pp.
119
143
.
29.
Rubas
,
P. J.
, and
Bullard
,
C. W.
,
1995
, “
Factors Contributing to Refrigerator Cycling Losses
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
18
(
3
), pp.
168
176
.
30.
Lv
,
J.
,
Wei
,
Z.
, and
Zhang
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Running and Economy Performance Analysis of Ground Source Heat Pump With Thermal Energy Storage Devices
,”
Energy Build.
,
127
, pp.
1108
1116
.
31.
Wei
,
Z.
,
Lv
,
J.
, and
Jiulong
,
L.
,
2015
, “
Study of Thermal Performance and Operation Strategy of a Compound Ground Source Heat Pump Heating System
,”
GRC Trans.
,
39
, pp.
165
168
.
32.
Charlick
,
H.
,
2013
, “
Investigation of the Interaction Between Hot Water Cylinders, Buffer Tanks and Heat Pumps
,”
Kiwa GASTEC at CRE
,
Department of Energy and Climate Change
, Cheltenham, UK.
33.
Modera
,
M.
,
Woolley
,
J.
, and
Grupp
,
D.
,
2014
, “
One Machine for Heating, Cooling, and Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes
,”
ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings
, Aug. 17–22, pp. 232–247.https://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2014/data/papers/1-483.pdf
34.
Fuentes
,
F.
,
Waddicor
,
D.
, and
Salom
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Improved Characterization of Water-to- Water Heat Pumps Part Load Performance
,”
REHVA J.
,
53
(4), pp.
45
49
.https://www.rehva.eu/publications-and-resources/rehva-journal/2016/052016/042016/improved-characterization-of-water-to-water-heat-pumps-part-load-performance.html
35.
Maritan
,
D.
,
2010
, “
Geothermal Heat Pump Systems for Multi Apartment Buildings: Some Case Studies in Italy and Project Management Implications
,”
World Geothermal Congress
, Bali, Indonesia, Apr. 25–29, pp. 1–4.
36.
Afram
,
A.
,
Janabi-Sharifi
,
F.
, and
Giorgio
,
G.
,
2014
, “
Data-Driven Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage Tank
,” IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (
CCECE
), Toronto, ON, Canada, May 4–7, pp. 1–5.
37.
Lu
,
Y.
,
Hooman
,
K.
,
Atrens
,
A. D.
, and
Russell
,
H.
,
2017
, “
An Experimental Facility to Validate Ground Source Heat Pump Optimisation Models for the Australian Climate
,”
Energies
,
10
(1), p. 138.
38.
Ally
,
M. R.
,
Munk
,
J. D.
,
Baxter
,
V. D.
, and
Gehl
,
A. C.
,
2015
, “
Exergy Analysis of a Two-Stage Ground Source Heat Pump With a Vertical Bore for Residential Space Conditioning Under Simulated Occupancy
,”
Appl. Energy
,
155
, pp.
502
514
.
39.
Davis
,
R.
, and
Larson
,
B.
,
2016
, “
Performance Testing of Variable Capacity Heat Pumps in the Pacific Northwest
,”
ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings
, Pacific Grove, CA, Aug. 21–26, pp. 1–4.https://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2016/data/papers/1_138.pdf
40.
Winkler
,
J.
,
2011
, “
Laboratory Test Report for Fujitsu 12RLS and Mitsubishi FE12 NA Mini-Split Heat Pumps
,”
U.S. Department of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
, Washington, DC.
41.
Fahlén
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Capacity Control of Heat Pumps
,”
REHVA J.
,
49
(5), pp.
28
31
.https://www.rehva.eu/publications-and-resources/rehva-journal/2012/052012/capacity-control-of-heat-pumps.html
42.
Karlsson
,
F.
, and
Fahlén
,
P.
,
2008
, “
Capacity Control and Optimised Operation of Domestic Heat Pump Heating Systems
,”
Ninth International IEA Heat Pump Conference
, Zürich, Switzerland, May 20–22, pp. 1–12.
43.
Tassou
,
S. A.
,
Marquand
,
C. J.
, and
Wilson
,
D. R.
,
1983
, “
Comparison of the Performance of Capacity Controlled and Conventional on/Off Controlled Heat Pumps
,”
Appl. Energy
,
14
(
4
), pp.
241
256
.
44.
Yang
,
D. S.
,
Lee
,
G. B.
,
Kim
,
M. S.
,
Cho
,
Y. M.
,
Hwang
,
Y. J.
, and
Chung
,
B. Y.
,
2004
, “
A Study on the Capacity Control of a Variable Speed Vapor Compression System Using Superheat Information at Compressor Discharge
,”
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 12–15, pp. 1–7.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1688&context=iracc
45.
Madani
,
H.
,
Ahmadi
,
N.
,
Claesson
,
J.
, and
Lundqvist
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Experimental Analysis of a Variable Capacity Heat Pump System Focusing on the Compressor and Inverter Loss Behavior
,”
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 12–15, pp. 1–8.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2062&context=iracc
46.
Binneberg
,
P.
,
Kraus
,
E.
, and
Quack
,
H.
,
2002
, “
Reduction in Power Consumption of Household Refrigerators by Using Variable Speed Compressors
,”
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 12–15.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9860/1bd70d2bfd8d4a729fabdda7ba958808b36f.pdf
47.
Munk
,
J.
,
Odukomaiya
,
A.
,
Jackson
,
R.
, and
Gehl
,
A.
, “
Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads
,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No.
ORNL/TM-2013/581
.https://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/files/pub47553.pdf
48.
Enteria
,
N.
,
Yamaguchi
,
H.
,
Miyata
,
M.
,
Sawachi
,
T.
, and
Kuwasawa
,
Y.
,
2016
, “
Performance Evaluation of the Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Air-Conditioning System Subjected to Partial and Unbalanced Thermal Loadings
,”
Bull. JSME J. Therm. Sci. Technol.
,
11
(
1
), p. 11.
49.
Watanabe
,
C.
,
Nagamatsu
,
K.
,
Nakayama
,
H.
,
Hirota
,
M.
, and
Ohashi
,
E.
,
2007
, “
Performance Characteristics of Multi-Type Air-Conditioners for Buildings Under Partial Thermal Load Operations
,”
International Symposium on EcoTopia Science
, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 23–25, pp.
248
254
.
50.
Kato
,
T.
,
Shirafuji
,
Y.
, and
Kawaguchi
,
S.
,
1996
, “
Comparison of Compressor Efficiency Between Rotary and Scroll Type With Alternative Refrigerants for R22
,”
International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp.
69
75
.
51.
Sakurai
,
E.
, and
Hamilton
,
J. F.
,
1984
, “
The Prediction of Frictional Losses in Variable-Speed Rotary Compressors
,”
International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp.
331
338
.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6c24/2cf794313346ac3675eb06c5ce7ea17454f1.pdf
52.
Ishii
,
N.
,
Morita
,
N.
,
Kurimoto
,
M.
,
Yamamoto
,
S.
, and
Sano
,
K.
,
2000
, “
Calculations for Compression Efficiency Caused by Heat Transfer in Compact Rotary Compressors
,”
Fifteenth International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp.
467
474
.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1d4e/93a85fa97fcb3fcd155698dc2b5ff44561de.pdf
53.
Masuda
,
M.
,
Sakitani
,
K.
,
Yamamoto
,
Y.
,
Uematsu
,
T.
, and
Mutoh
,
A.
,
1996
, “
Development of Swing Compressor for Alternative Refrigerants
,”
International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp.
499
504
.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=3297&context=icec
54.
Yamada
,
R.
,
Sato
,
K.
, and
Takesashi
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Power Consumption Analysis of Rotary Vane Compressor
,”
Calsonic Kansei Tech. Rev.
,
12
, pp.
19
22
.https://www.calsonickansei.co.jp/en/
55.
Saber
,
E. M.
,
Tham
,
K. W.
, and
Leibundgut
,
H.
,
2015
, “
A Review of High Temperature Cooling Systems in Tropical Buildings
,”
Building Environ.
,
96
, pp.
237
249
.
56.
Yu
,
F. W.
, and
Chan
,
K. T.
,
2007
, “
Part Load Performance of Air-Cooled Centrifugal Chillers With Variable Speed Condenser Fan Control
,”
Building Environ.
,
42
(
11
), pp.
3816
3829
.
57.
Col
,
D. D.
,
Benassi
,
G.
,
Mantovan
,
M.
, and
Azzolin
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Energy Efficiency in a Ground Source Heat Pump With Variable Speed Drives
,”
International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp. 1–10.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/iracc/1342/
58.
Boldvig
,
V.
, and
Villadsen
,
V.
,
1980
, “
A Balanced View of Reciprocating and Screw Compressor Efficiencies
,”
International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp.
317
322
.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1349&context=icec
59.
Ishii
,
N.
,
Yamamura
,
M.
,
Muramatsu
,
S.
,
Yamamoto
,
S.
, and
Sakai
,
M.
,
1990
, “
Mechanical Efficiency of a Variable Speed Scroll Compressor
,”
International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 11–14, pp.
192
199
.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1704&context=icec
60.
Kimata
,
Y.
,
Fujitani
,
M.
,
Kobayashi
,
H.
,
Miyamoto
,
Y.
, and
Matsuda
,
S.
,
2004
, “
Development of High Performance R410A Scroll Compressor for Gas Engine Heat Pump
,”
International Compressor Engineering Conference
, West Lafayette, IN, July 12–15.https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2743&context=icec
61.
Yu
,
F. W.
, and
Chan
,
K. T.
,
2007
, “
Optimum Load Sharing Strategy for Multiple-Chiller Systems Serving Air-Conditioned Buildings
,”
Building Environ.
,
42
(
4
), pp.
1581
1593
.
62.
Ganni
,
V.
,
Knudsen
,
P.
,
Creel
,
J.
,
Arenius
,
D.
,
Casagrande
,
F.
, and
Howell
,
M.
,
2008
, “
Screw Compressor Characteristics for Helium Refrigeration Systems
,”
AIP Conference Proceedings,
Vol.
53
, Oak Ridge, TN, July 16–20, pp.
309
315
.
63.
Reindl
,
D. T.
, and
Jekel
,
T. B.
,
2003
, “
Selection of Screw Compressors for Energy Efficient Operation
,” International Congress of Refrigeration, Washington, DC, Aug. 17–22 pp. 1–8.
64.
Jung
,
Y.
,
Kim
,
H.
,
Jo
,
J.
,
Kim
,
Y.
, and
Cho
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
A Study on the Operation Method of Geothermal Heat Pump System for Improvement of Energy Efficiency
,”
ASIM IBPSA Asia Conference
, Nagoya, Japan, Nov. 28–29, pp.
825
832
.
65.
Albieri
,
M.
,
Beghi
,
A.
,
Bodo
,
C.
, and
Cecchinato
,
L.
,
2007
, “
A Simulation Environment for the Design of Advanced Chiller Control Systems
,”
IEEE
Conference on Automation Science and Engineering
, Scottsdale, AZ, Sept. 22–25, pp.
962
967
.
66.
Yu
,
F. W.
,
Chan
,
K. T.
,
Sit
,
R. K. Y.
, and
Yang
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Performance Evaluation of Oil-Free Chillers for Building Energy Performance Improvement
,”
Procedia Eng.
,
121
, pp.
975
983
.
67.
Huang
,
S.
, and
Zuo
,
W.
,
2014
, “
Optimization of the Water-Cooled Chiller Plant System Operation
,”
ASHRAE/IBPSA-USA Building Simulation Conference
, Atlanta, GA, Sept. 10–12, pp.
300
307
.https://miami.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/optimization-of-the-water-cooled-chiller-plant-system-operation
68.
Huchtemann
,
K.
, and
Mu¨ller
,
D.
,
2013
, “
Simulation Study on Supply Temperature Optimization in Domestic Heat Pump Systems
,”
Building Environ.
,
59
, pp.
327
335
.
69.
Huchtemann
,
K.
,
2015
, “
Supply Temperature Control Concepts in Heat Pump Heating Systems
,” Ph.D. thesis, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
70.
Faanes
,
A.
, and
Skogestad
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Buffer Tank Design for Acceptable Control Performance
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
,
42
(
10
), pp.
2198
2208
.
71.
Le Feuvre
,
P.
,
2007
, “
An Investigation Into Ground Source Heat Pump Technology, Its UK Market and Best Practice in System Design
,” Master's Thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
72.
Zhang
,
Z.
,
Turner
,
W. D.
,
Chen
,
Q.
,
Xu
,
C.
, and
Deng
,
S.
,
2010
, “
A Method to Determine the Optimal Tank Size for a Chilled Water Storage System Under a Time-of-Use Electricity Rate Structure
,”
Tenth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations
, Kuwait, Oct. 26–28, Paper no. ESL-IC-10-10-21.https://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/94066/ESL-IC-10-10-21.pdf?sequence=1
73.
Kummert
,
M. L.
,
Dempster
,
W. M.
, and
McLean
,
K.
,
2009
, “
Thermal Analysis of a Data Centre Cooling System Under Fault Conditions
,”
Eleventh International IBPSA Conference
, Glasgow, Scotland, July 27–30, pp.
1299
1305
.http://www.ibpsa.org/proceedings/BS2009/BS09_1299_1305.pdf
74.
Faanes
,
A.
, and
Skogestad
,
S.
,
2000
, “
A Systematic Approach to the Design of Buffer Tanks
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
,
24
(
2–7
), pp.
1395
1401
.
75.
Bjarne
,
W. O.
,
2002
, “
Radiant Floor Heating in Theory and Practice
,”
ASHRAE J.
,
44
(7), 2pp.
19
24
.
76.
Ryu
,
S. R.
,
Lim
,
J. H.
,
Yeo
,
M. S.
, and
Kim
,
K. W.
,
2004
, “
A Study on the Control Methods for Radiant Floor Heating and Cooling System in Residential Building
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
,
110
(2), pp.
106
116
.https://www.ashrae.org
77.
Rhee
,
K. N.
,
Ryu
,
S. R.
,
Yeo
,
M. S.
, and
Kim
,
K. W.
,
2010
, “
Simulation Study on Hydronic Balancing to Improve Individual Room Control for Radiant Floor Heating System
,”
Build. Serv. Eng. Res. Technol.
,
31
(
1
), pp.
57
73
.
78.
Baek
,
J.
,
Choi
,
J. Y.
,
Jang
,
S. Y.
, and
Park
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Simulational Analysis of Adaptive Outdoor Reset Control Based on a Fuzzy Target Temperature Gap for a Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating System
,”
J. Asian Archit. Build. Eng.
,
9
(
1
), pp.
251
257
.
79.
Egan
,
T.
,
2010
, “
White Paper: Conversion From Constant Flow System to Variable Flow
,”
S. A. Armstrong
,
Toronto, ON, Canada
.
80.
Liu
,
X.
,
Zheng
,
O.
, and
Niu
,
F.
,
2016
, “
A Simulation-Based Study on Different Control Strategies for Variable Speed Pump in Distributed Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
,”
ASHRAE Trans. J.
,
122
(2), pp. 173–185.https://www.ornl.gov/content/simulation-based-study-different-control-strategies-variable-speed-pump-distributed-ground
81.
Yin
,
H.
,
Ooka
,
R.
, and
Shukuya
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Application of Exergy Analysis to Chilled Water Circuit and Heat Pump System
,”
Sixth International Building Physics Conference
, Italy, Torino, June 14–17, pp.
1075
1080
.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610215017749
82.
Skoglund
,
P. K.
,
2015
, “
DeltaPValve System Design Manual the Complete Variable Flow System Approach for HVAC Hydronics
,” Flow Control Industries, Washington, DC, accessed Nov. 29, 2018, http://www.flowcontrol.com
83.
Chu
,
G.
,
Wang
,
Y.
, and
Chu
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Measurement and Analysis of a GSHP System Operation in Winter
,”
Procedia Eng.
,
146
, pp.
573
578
.
84.
Cvetkovski
,
C. G.
,
2014
, “
Modelling of Flow and Heat Transport in Vertical Loop Ground Heat Exchangers
,”
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada, Paper No. 5158.https://scholar.uwindsor.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6157&context=etd
85.
Kavanaugh
,
S.
,
1988
, “
Ground and Water Source Heat Pump Performance and Design for Southern Climates
,”
Fifth Symposium on Improving Building Systems
, Houston, TX, Sept. 12–14, pp.
96
105
.https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/79624920.pdf
86.
Gehlin
,
S. E. A.
, and
Spitler
,
J. D.
,
2015
, “
Effects of Ground Heat Exchanger Design Flow Velocities on System Performance of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Cold Climates
,”
ASHRAE Winter Conference
, Chicago, IL, Jan. 24–28, p. 8.http://media.geoenergicentrum.se/2016/02/Gehlin_Spitler_2015.pdf
87.
GeoEnergy
,
2012
, “
Procedure and Charts for Designing the Hydraulics and Associated Pumping Power of Closed Loop GSHP Systems Under MCS
,” MCS, Watford, UK.
88.
Vogelesang
,
H.
,
2008
, “
An Introduction to Energy Consumption in Pumps
,”
World Pumps
,
2008
(
496
), pp.
28
31
.
89.
Vogelesang
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Energy Consumption in Pumps—Friction Losses
,”
World Pumps
,
2008
(499), pp.
20
24
.
90.
Edwards
,
K. C.
, and
Finn
,
D. P.
,
2015
, “
Generalised Water Flow Rate Control Strategy for Optimal Part Load Operation of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
,”
Appl. Energy
,
150
, pp.
50
60
.
91.
Ma
,
Z.
, and
Xia
,
L.
,
2017
, “
Model-based Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
,”
Energy Procedia
,
111
, pp.
12
20
.
92.
Liu
,
X.
,
Hughes
,
P.
,
Gehl
,
A.
,
Hern
,
S.
, and
Ellis
,
D.
,
2017
, “
Advanced Controls for Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems
,” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, Report No.
ORNL/TM-2017/302CRADA/NFE-13-04586
.https://info.ornl.gov/sites/publications/Files/Pub75387.pdf
93.
Annus
,
I.
,
Uibo
,
D.
, and
Koppel
,
T.
,
2014
, “
Pumps Energy Consumption Based on New EU Legislation
,”
Procedia Eng.
,
89
, pp.
517
524
.
94.
Ma
,
X.
,
Gao
,
D.
, and
Liang
,
D.
,
2017
, “
Improved Control Strategy of Variable Speed Pumps in Complex Chilled Water Systems Involving Plate Heat Exchangers
,”
Procedia Eng.
,
205
, pp.
2800
2806
.
95.
Ma
,
Z.
, and
Wang
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Energy Efficient Control of Variable Speed Pumps in Complex Building Central Air-conditioning Systems
,”
Energy Build.
,
41
(
2
), pp.
197
205
.
96.
Burt Rishel
,
J.
,
2003
, “
Control of Variable Speed Pumps for HVAC Water Systems/Discussion
,”
ASHRAE Trans
,
109
(1), pp. 380–389.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287919784_Control_of_Variable_Speed_Pumps_for_HVAC_Water_Systems
97.
Sun
,
J.
,
Feng
,
X.
,
Wang
,
Y.
,
Deng
,
C.
, and
Chu
,
K. H.
,
2014
, “
Pump Network Optimization for a Cooling Water System
,”
Energy
,
67
, pp.
1
7
.
98.
Westerlund
,
T.
,
Pettersson
,
F.
, and
Grossmann
,
I. E.
,
1994
, “
Optimization of Pump Configuration Problems as a INLP Problem
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
,
18
(
9
), pp.
845
858
.
99.
Pettersson
,
F.
, and
Westerlund
,
T.
,
1997
, “
Global Optimization of Pump Configurations Using Binary Separable Programming
,”
Comput. Chem. Eng.
,
21
(
5
), pp.
521
529
.
100.
Augustyn
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Energy Efficiency and Savings in Pumping Systems—The Holistic Approach
,” Southern African Energy Efficiency Convention, Johannesburg, South Africa, Nov. 14–15, pp. 1–7.
You do not currently have access to this content.