The main purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using a hybrid photovoltaic (PV), fuel cell (FC), and battery system to power different load cases, which are intended to be used at the Al-Zarqa governorate in Jordan. All aspects related to the potentials of solar energy in the Al-Hashemeya area were studied. The irradiation levels were carefully identified and analyzed and found to range between 4.1 and 7.6 kWh/m2/day; these values represented an excellent opportunity for the photovoltaic solar system. homer (Hybrid Optimization model for Multiple Energy Resources) software is used as an optimization and sizing tool to discuss several renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, energy storage methods, and their applicability regarding cost and performance. Different scenarios with photovoltaic slope, diesel price, and fuel cell cost were done. A remote residential building, school, and factory having an energy consumption of 31 kWh/day with a peak of 5.3 kW, 529 kWh/day with a maximum of 123 kW and 608 kWh/day with a maximum of 67 kW, respectively, were considered as the case studies' loads. It was found that the PV-diesel generator system with battery is the most suitable solution at present for the residential building case, while the PV-FC-diesel generator-electrolyzer hybrid system with battery suites best both the school and factory cases. The load profile for each case was found to have a substantial effect on how the system's power produced a scheme. For the residential building, PV panels contributed by about 75% of the total power production, the contribution increased for the school case study to 96% and dropped for the factory case to almost 50%.
A Stand-Alone Hybrid Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, and Battery System: Case Studies in Jordan
Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Energy Resources Technology. Manuscript received February 20, 2019; final manuscript received April 28, 2019; published online May 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.
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Qandil, M. D., Abbas, A. I., Qandil, H. D., Al-Haddad, M. R., and Amano, R. S. (May 17, 2019). "A Stand-Alone Hybrid Photovoltaic, Fuel Cell, and Battery System: Case Studies in Jordan." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. November 2019; 141(11): 111201. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4043656
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