The well clean-up process involves the removal of impermeable filter cake from the formation face. This process is essential to allow the formation fluids to flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Different types of drilling fluids such as oil- and water-based drilling fluids are used to drill oil and gas wells. These drilling fluids are weighted with different weighting materials such as bentonite, calcium carbonate, and barite. The filter cake that forms on the formation face consists mainly of the drilling fluid weighting materials (around 90%), and the rest is other additives such as polymers or oil in the case of oil-base drilling fluids. The process of filter cake removal is very complicated because it involves more than one stage due to the compatibility issues of the fluids used to remove the filter cake. Different formulations were used to remove different types of filter cake, but the problem with these methods is the removal efficiency or the compatibility. In this paper, a new method was developed to remove different types of filter cakes and to clean-up oil and gas wells after drilling operations. Thermochemical fluids that consist of two inert salts when mixed together will generate very high pressure and high temperature in addition to hot water and hot nitrogen. These fluids are sodium nitrate and ammonium chloride. The filter cake was formed using barite and calcite water- and oil-based drilling fluids at high pressure and high temperature. The removal process started by injecting 500 ml of the two salts and left for different time periods from 6 to 24 h. The results of this study showed that the newly developed method of thermochemical removed the filter cake after 6 h with a removal efficiency of 89 wt% for the barite filter cake in the water-based drilling fluid. The mechanisms of removal using the combined solution of thermochemical fluid and ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) chelating agent were explained by the generation of a strong pressure pulse that disturbed the filter cake and the generation of the high temperature that enhanced the barite dissolution and polymer degradation. This solution for filter cake removal works for reservoir temperatures greater than 100 °C.

References

References
1.
Thomas
,
B.
, and
Sharma
,
M. M.
,
1998
, “
Distribution of Mud Induced Damage Around Horizontal Wellbores
,”
SPE International Symposium on Formation
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 18–19
, SPE Paper No. SPE-39468-MS.
2.
Frick
,
T. P.
, and
Economides
,
M. J.
,
1993
, “
Horizontal Well Damage Characterization and Removal
,”
SPE Prod. Facil.
,
8
(
1
), pp.
15
22
.
3.
Davidson
,
J. M.
,
Jones
,
M.
,
Shuchart
,
C. E.
, and
Gerard
,
C.
,
2001
, “
Oil-Based Muds for Reservoir Drilling: Their Performance and Cleanup Characteristics
,”
SPE Drill. Completion
,
16
(
2
), pp.
127
134
.
4.
Jiao
,
D.
, and
Sharma
,
M.
,
1992
, “
Formation Damage Due to Static and Dynamic Filtration of Water Based Muds
,”
International Symposium on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, Louisiana
,
Feb. 26–27
, SPE Paper No. SPE-23823-MS.
5.
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
,
Ba Geri
,
B. S.
,
Elkatatny
,
S. M.
, and
Al-Mutairi
,
S.
,
2017
, “
Modeling of Filter Cake Composition in Maximum Reservoir Contact and Extended Reach Horizontal Wells in Sandstone Reservoirs
,”
J. Energ. Resour. Technol.
,
139
(
3
), p.
032904
.
6.
Ba Geri
,
B. S.
,
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
, and
Al-Mutairi
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Effect of Sand Content on the Filter Cake Properties and Removal During Drilling Maximum Reservoir Contact Wells in Sandstone Reservoir
,”
J. Energ. Resour. Technol.
,
138
(
3
), p.
032901
.
7.
Ezeakacha
,
C. P.
,
Salehi
,
S.
, and
Hayatdavoudi
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Experimental Study of Drilling Fluid’s Filtration and Mud Cake Evolution in Sandstone Formations
,”
J. Energ. Resour. Technol.
,
139
(
2
), p.
022912
.
8.
Adewole
,
J.
, and
Najimu
,
M.
,
2017
, “
A Study on the Effects of Date Pit-Based Additive on the Performance of Water-Based Drilling Fluid
,”
J. Energ. Resour. Technol.
,
140
(
5
), p.
052903
.
9.
Price-Smith
,
C.
,
Bennett
,
C.
,
Ali
,
S. A.
,
Hodge
,
R. M.
,
Burton
,
R. C.
, and
Parlar
,
M.
,
1998
, “
Open Hole Horizontal Well Cleanup in Sand Control Completions: State of the Art in Field Practice and Laboratory Development
,”
European Petroleum Conference
,
The Hague, The Netherlands
,
Oct. 20–22
, SPE Paper No. SPE-50673-MS.
10.
Parlar
,
M.
,
Tibbles
,
R. J.
,
Chang
,
F. F.
,
Fu
,
D.
,
Morris
,
L.
,
Davison
,
M.
,
Vinod
,
P. S.
, and
Wierenga
,
A.
,
1998
, “
Laboratory Development of a Novel, Simultaneous Cake-Cleanup and Gravel-Packing System for Long, Highly-Deviated or Horizontal Open-Hole Completions
,”
European Petroleum Conference
,
The Hague, The Netherlands
,
Oct. 20–22
, SPE Paper No. SPE-50651-MS.
11.
TjonJoe-Pin
,
R.
,
Brannon
,
H. D.
, and
Rickards
,
A. R.
,
1993
, “
Remedial Treatment for Polymeric Damage Removal Provides Improved Well Productivity
,”
SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry
,
New Orleans, LA
,
Mar. 2–5
, SPE Paper No. SPE-25214-MS.
12.
Brannon
,
H. D.
,
1994
, “
Biotechnological Breakthrough Improves Performance of Moderate to High-Temperature Fracturing Applications
,”
Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
,
New Orleans, LA
,
Sept. 25–28
, SPE Paper No. SPE-28513-MS.
13.
Hembling
,
D.
,
Chan
,
A.
,
Garner
,
J.
, and
Beall
,
B.
,
2000
, “
Using Enzymatic Breakers in Horizontal Wells to Enhance Wellbore Clean-Up
,”
International Symposium on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 23–24
, SPE Paper No. SPE-58732-MS.
14.
Mahadi
,
K. A.
,
Nizam
,
M. M.
,
Jadid
,
M. B.
,
Ogbonna
,
C.
,
Hashim
,
S.
, and
Chen
,
Y. C.
,
2014
, “
Use of Acid Precursor as Alternative to Acid Treatment to Drill-In Fluid Filter Cake Removal: FN Case Study
,”
International Petroleum Technology Conference
,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
,
Dec. 10–12
, IPTC Paper No. IPTC-17713-MS.
15.
Mikhailov
,
M. I.
,
Zhu
,
D.
, and
Hill
,
A. D.
,
2008
, “
An Experimental Investigation of Drilling-Fluid Filter-Cake Removal by Acid Jetting
,”
SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 13–15
, SPE Paper No. 112373.
16.
Ba-Geri
,
B.
,
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
,
Shawabkeh
,
R. A.
,
Al-Mutairi
,
S. H.
, and
Abdulrahim
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Towards a Complete Removal of Barite (Barium Sulfate BaSO4) Scale Using Chelating Agents and Catalysts
,”
Arab. J. Sci. Eng.
,
42
, pp.
1667
1674
.
17.
Bageri
,
B.
,
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
,
Abdulrahim
,
A.
,
Shawabkeh
,
R.
, and
Al-Mutairi
,
S.
,
2017
, “
Single Stage Filter Cake Removal of Barite Weighted Water Based Drilling Fluid
,”
J. Pet. Sci. Eng.
,
149
, pp.
476
484
.
18.
Ba Geri
,
B. S.
,
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
,
Shawabkeh
,
R. A.
, and
Abdulraheem
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Evaluation of Barium Sulfate (Barite) Solubility Using Different Chelating Agents—Different Bases—At High Temperature
,”
J. Pet. Sci. Technol.
,
7
(
1
), pp.
42
56
.
19.
Mahmoud
,
M.
,
Ba Geri
,
B.
,
Abdelgawad
,
K.
,
Kamal
,
M. S.
,
Hussein
,
I.
,
Elkatatny
,
S.
, and
Shawabkeh
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Evaluation of the Reaction Kinetics of Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic Acid Chelating Agent and a Converter With Barium Sulfate (Barite) Using a Rotating Disk Apparatus
,”
Energy Fuels
,
32
(
9
), pp.
9813
9821
.
20.
Mahmoud
,
M.
, and
Elkatatny
,
S.
,
2018
, “
Removal of Barite Scale and Barite Weighted Water- or Oil-Based Drilling Fluid Residue in One Single Stage
,”
SPE Drill. Completion
,
34
, pp.
16
26
.
21.
Ba Geri
,
B. S.
,
Mahmoud
,
M.
,
Al-Majed
,
A. A.
,
Al-Mutairi
,
S. H.
,
Abdulazeez
,
A.
, and
Shawabkeh
,
R.
,
2017
, “
Water Base Barite Filter Cake Using Non-Corrosive Agents
,”
SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference
,
Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain
,
Mar. 6–9
, SPE Paper No. 183653.
22.
Rostami
,
A.
, and
Nasr-El-Din
,
H. A.
,
2010
, “
New Technology for Filter Cake Removal
,”
SPE Russian Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition
,
Moscow, Russia
,
Oct. 26–28
, SPE Paper No. 136400.
23.
Vickers
,
S.
,
Bruce
,
S.
,
Hutton
,
A.
, and
Nunzi
,
P.
,
2011
, “
Protect and Inject: Optimized Well Fluids Successfully Drill Depleted Reservoirs to Store Gas
,”
SPE European Formation Damage Conference
,
Noordwijk, The Netherlands
,
June 7–10
, SPE Paper No. SPE-144798-MS.
24.
Brege
,
J.
,
El Sherbeny
,
W.
,
Quintero
,
L.
, and
Jones
,
T.
,
2012
, “
Using Microemulsion Technology to Remove Oil-Based Mud in Wellbore Displacement and Remediation Applications
,”
North Africa Technology Conference and Exhibition
,
Cairo, Egypt
,
Feb. 20–22
, SPE Paper No. SPE-150237-MS.
25.
Al-Anzi
,
N.
,
Gohain
,
A.
,
Hussain
,
I.
,
Haider
,
B.
,
Davidson
,
E.
, and
MacMillan
,
B.
,
2009
, “
Carefully Designed Water-Based Drill-In Fluid and Filter Cake Removal System Improve Reservoir Producibility and Reduce Well Completion Costs
,”
SPE Formation Damage Conference
,
Scheveningen, The Netherlands
,
May 27–29
, SPE Paper No. SPE-122327-MS.
26.
Leschi
,
P.
,
Demarthon
,
G.
,
Davidson
,
E.
, and
Clinch
,
D.
,
2006
, “
Delayed Release Acid System for Cleanup of Al Khalij Horizontal Open Hole Drains
,”
SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 15–17
, SPE Paper No. SPE-98164-MS.
27.
Zubail
,
M. A.
,
Al-Kuait
,
A. M. S.
,
Al-Yateem
,
K. S.
,
El Bialy
,
M.
,
Maghrabi
,
S.
,
Olivares
,
T.
, and
Ezell
,
R. G.
,
2012
, “
Improved Producibility After Delayed Filter Cake Breaker Treatment in the Safaniya Offshore Field in Saudi Arabia
,”
SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition
,
Kuwait City, Kuwait
,
Dec. 10–12
, SPE Paper No. SPE-163357-MS.
28.
Quintero
,
L.
,
Jones
,
T.
, and
Clark
,
D. E.
,
2005
, “
One-Step Acid Removal of an Invert Emulsion
,”
European Formation Damage Conference
,
Scheveningen, The Netherlands
,
May 25–27
, SPE Paper No. SPE-94604-MS.
29.
Ezrahi
,
S.
,
Aserin
,
A.
, and
Garti
,
N.
,
1999
, “Aggregation Behaviour in One-Phase (Winsor IV) Microemulsion Systems,”
Handbook of Microemulsion Science and Technology
,
P.
Kumar
, and
K. L.
Mittal
, eds.,
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
,
New York
, p.
185
.
30.
Shinoda
,
K.
, and
Kunieda
,
H.
,
1983
, “Phase Properties of Emulsions: PIT and HLB,”
Encyclopedia of Emulsion Technology
,
P.
Becher
, ed.,
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
,
New York
, p.
1
.
31.
Zana
,
R.
, and
Lang
,
J.
,
1987
, “
Dynamic of Microemulsions
,”
Microemulsion; Structure and Dynamics
,
S. E.
Friderg
, and
P.
Bothorel
, eds.,
CRC Press, Inc.
,
Boca Raton, FL
, p.
153
.
32.
Al-Otaibi
,
M. A.
,
BinMoqbil
,
K. H.
,
Al-Rabba
,
A. S.
, and
Abitrabi
,
A. N.
,
2010
, “
Single-Stage Chemical Treatment for Oil-Based Mudcake Cleanup: Field Case and Laboratory Studies
,”
SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 10–12
, SPE Paper No. SPE-127795-MS.
33.
Quintero
,
L.
,
Jones
,
T.
, and
Pietrangeli
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Phase Boundaries of Microemulsion Systems Help to Increase Productivity
,”
SPE European Formation Damage Conference
,
Noordwijk, The Netherlands
,
June 7–10
, SPE Paper No. SPE-144209-MS.
34.
Kumar
,
V. A.
,
Balraj
,
A. A.
,
Ishaq
,
G. K.
,
Prakash
,
B. L.
,
Imran
,
J. A.
,
Al Saqer
,
Q. R.
,
El Sherbeny
,
W.
,
Pino
,
A. R.
,
Gad-Alla
,
A. E.
, and
Olivaresantunez
,
T.
,
2016
, “
Overcoming OBM Filter Cake Damage Using Micro-Emulsion Remediation Technology Across a High-Temperature Formation
,”
SPE International Conference & Exhibition on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 24–26
, SPE Paper No. SPE-178942-MS.
35.
Bourrel
,
M.
,
Chambu
,
C.
, and
Schechter
,
R. S.
,
1982
, “
The Topology of Phase Boundaries for Oil/Brine/Surfactant Systems and Its Relationship to Oil Recovery
,”
SPE J.
,
22
(
1
), pp.
28
36
.
36.
Graciaa
,
A.
,
Lachaise
,
J.
,
Cucuphat
,
C.
,
Bourrel
,
M.
, and
Salager
,
J. L.
,
1993
, “
Interfacial Segregation of an Ethyl Oleate/Hexadecane Oil Mixture in Microemulsion Systems
,”
Langmuir
,
9
(
6
), pp.
1473
1478
.
37.
Queste
,
S.
,
Salager
,
J. L.
,
Strey
,
R.
, and
Aubry
,
J. M.
,
2007
, “
The EACN Scale for Oil Classification Revisited Thanks to Fish Diagrams
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
312
(
1
), pp.
98
107
.
38.
Pietrangeli
,
G.
,
Quintero
,
L.
,
Jones
,
T. A.
,
Benaissa
,
S.
,
Menezes
,
C. A.
,
Aubry
,
E.
,
Poitrenaud
,
H.
, and
Furgier
,
J. N.
,
2014
, “
Overcoming Wellbore Cleanup Challenges in Deepwater Wells in West Africa
,”
SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control
,
Lafayette, LA
,
Feb. 26–28
, SPE Paper No. SPE-168215-MS.
39.
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
, and
Elkatatny
,
S.
,
2019
, “
Removal of Barite-Scale and Barite-Weighted Water- or Oil-Based-Drilling-Fluid Residue in a Single Stage
,”
SPE Drill. Completion
,
34
(
1
), pp.
16
26
.
40.
Zhang
,
Y. M.
, and
Napier-Munn
,
T. J.
,
1995
, “
Effects of Particle Size Distribution, Surface Area and Chemical Composition on Portland Cement Strength
,”
Powder Technol.
,
83
(
3
), pp.
245
252
.
41.
Economides
,
M.
,
Hill
,
A. D.
,
Economides
,
C. E.
, and
Zhu
,
D.
,
2012
,
Petroleum Production System
,
2nd ed.
,
Prentice Hall, Pearson Education
,
NJ
.
42.
Mahmoud
,
M. A.
,
Nasr-El-Din
,
H. A.
,
De Wolf
,
C. A.
, and
LePage
,
J. N.
, “
Optimum Injection Rate of a New Chelate That Can Be Used to Stimulate Carbonate Reservoirs
,”
SPE J.
,
16
(
4
), pp.
968
980
.
You do not currently have access to this content.