The use of renewable sources, such as woody biomass waste, for energy purposes helps to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and therefore the production of associated pollutants and greenhouse gases. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are devices that convert the chemical energy of a product gas produced by a gasifier of biomass waste, before being suitably purified, directly into electric energy, with conversion efficiency, which is higher than that of other conventional energy systems. Since they operate at high temperature, they make available also thermal energy, which can be used for co- and tri-generation purposes. This paper aims at studying the arrangement of a complete trigenerative energy system composed of a gasifier of waste biomass; an energy unit represented by a SOFC system; an absorption cooling section for the conversion into cooling energy of the waste heat. In its layout, the SOFC energy unit considers the anode off gas recirculation, a postcombustor to energize the exhaust stream, and a preheater for the fresh gases entering. The integrated plant is completed by means of batteries for electric energy storage and hot water tanks and thermal energy storage. An ad hoc developed numerical modeling is used to choose the working point of the SOFC energy system at which to operate it and to analyze its energy behavior under syngas feeding. Two biomass-derived syngas are analyzed: one from woody biomass and one from urban solid waste gasification. Hence, the entire integrated plant is analyzed for both feeding types. The energy analysis of the integrated SOFC/gasifier is carried out based on a fixed quantity of biomass waste to be processed in an existing gasifier. Then, the design of the SOFC energy section is carried out. The integrated plant is then applied to a case study to satisfy the energy needs of a user of the tertiary sector. Therefore, based on this, the procedure continues with sizing the cooling section for the cooling power delivery in the warm season, the batteries to store the electric energy to be delivered, and the hot water tanks for the thermal energy storage to be delivered as heat when necessary or to feed the absorption cooling plant. The integrated SOFC/Gasifier defined can be considered as a high-efficiency tri-generator capable of accomplishing an energy valorization of high quality waste biomass.

References

References
1.
Alderucci
,
V.
,
Antonucci
,
P. L.
,
Maggio
,
G.
,
Giordano
,
N.
, and
Antonucci
,
V.
,
1994
, “
Thermodynamic Analysis of SOFC Fuelled by Biomass-Derived Gas
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
19
(
4
), pp.
369
376
.
2.
Hutton
,
P. N.
,
Musich
,
M. A.
,
Patel
,
N.
,
Schmidt
,
D. D.
, and
Timpe
,
R. C.
,
2003
, “
Feasibility Study of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation
,” National Energy Technology Laboratory Cooperative Agreement, Phase 1, Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, Interim Report No. DE-FC26-98FT40321.
3.
Omosun
,
A. O.
,
Bauen
,
A.
,
Brandon
,
N. P.
,
Adjiman
,
C. S.
, and
Hart
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Modelling System Efficiencies and Costs of Two Biomass-Fuelled SOFC Systems
,”
J. Power Sources
,
131
(
1–2
), pp.
96
106
.
4.
Cordiner
,
S.
,
Feola
,
M.
,
Mulone
,
V.
, and
Romanelli
,
F.
,
2007
, “
Analysis of a SOFC Energy Generation System Fuelled With Biomass Reformate
,”
Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
27
(
4
), pp.
738
747
.
5.
Panopoulos
,
K. D.
,
Fryda
,
L. E.
,
Karl
,
J.
,
Poulou
,
S.
, and
Kakaras
,
E.
,
2006
, “
High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Integrated With Novel Allothermal Biomass Gasification Part I: Modelling and Feasibility Study
,”
J. Power Sources
,
159
(
1
), pp.
570
585
.
6.
Panopoulos
,
K. D.
,
Fryda
,
L.
,
Karl
,
J.
,
Poulou
,
S.
, and
Kakaras
,
E.
,
2006
, “
High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Integrated With Novel Allothermal Biomass Gasification—Part II: Exergy Analysis
,”
J. Power Sources
,
159
(
1
), pp.
586
594
.
7.
Karellas
,
S.
,
Karl
,
J.
, and
Kakaras
,
E.
,
2008
, “
An Innovative Biomass Gasification Process and Its Coupling With Microturbine and Fuel Cell Systems
,”
Energy
,
33
(
2
), pp.
284
291
.
8.
Fryda
,
L.
,
Panopoulos
,
K. D.
,
Karl
,
J.
, and
Kakaras
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Exergetic Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Biomass Gasification Integration With Heat Pipes
,”
Energy
,
33
(
2
), pp.
292
299
.
9.
Dayton
,
D. C.
,
Ratcliff
,
M.
, and
Bain
,
R.
,
2001
, “
Fuel Cell Integration—A Study of the Impacts of Gas Quality and Impurities
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, Report No.
NREL/MP-510-30298
.
10.
Rasmussen
,
J. F. B.
, and
Hagen
,
A.
,
2009
, “
The Effect of H2S on the Performance of Ni-YSZ Anodes in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
,”
J. Power Sources
,
191
(
2
), pp.
534
541
.
11.
Dincer
,
I.
,
Rosen
,
M. A.
, and
Zamfirescu
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Exergetic Performance Analysis of a Gas Turbine Cycle Integrated With Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
(
3
), p.
032001
.
12.
Sadeghi
,
S.
, and
Ameri
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Exergy Analysis of Photovoltaic Panels-Coupled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Gas Turbine-Electrolyzer Hybrid System
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
136
(
3
), p.
031201
.
13.
Lobachyov
,
K.
, and
Richter
,
H. J.
,
1996
, “
Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant With Coal Gasification and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
118
(
4
), pp.
285
292
.
14.
El-Emam
,
R. S.
, and
Dincer
,
I.
,
2016
, “
Assessment and Evolutionary Based Multi-Objective Optimization of a Novel Renewable-Based Polygeneration Energy System
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
139
(
1
), p.
012003
.
15.
Barchewitz
,
L.
, and
Palsson
,
J.
,
2000
, “
Design of an SOFC System Combined to the Gasification of Biomass
,” Fourth European Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Forum, Lucerne, Switzerland, July 10–14, pp.
59
68
.
16.
Sucipta
,
M.
,
Kimijima
,
S.
, and
Suzuki
,
K.
,
2007
, “
Performance Analysis of the SOFC–MGT Hybrid System With Gasified Biomass Fuel
,”
J. Power Sources
,
174
(
1
), pp.
124
135
.
17.
Fryda
,
L.
,
Panopoulos
,
K. D.
, and
Kakaras
,
E.
,
2008
, “
Integrated CHP With Autothermal Biomass Gasification and SOFC–MGT
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
49
(
2
), pp.
281
290
.
18.
Corigliano
,
O.
, and
Fragiacomo
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Technical Analysis of Hydrogen-Rich Stream Generation Through CO2 Reforming of Biogas by Using Numerical Modeling
,”
Fuel
,
158
, pp.
538
548
.
19.
De Lorenzo
,
G.
, and
Fragiacomo
,
P.
,
2015
, “
Energy Analysis of an SOFC System Fed by Syngas
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
93
, pp.
175
186
.
20.
De Lorenzo
,
G.
,
Corigliano
,
O.
,
Lo Faro
,
M.
,
Frontera
,
P.
,
Antonucci
,
P.
,
Zignani
,
S. C.
,
Trocino
,
S.
,
Mirandola
,
F. A.
,
Aricò
,
A. S.
, and
Fragiacomo
,
P.
,
2016
, “
Thermoelectric Characterization of an Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Directly Fed by Dry Biogas
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
127
, pp.
90
102
.
21.
Corigliano
,
O.
,
Florio
,
G.
, and
Fragiacomo
,
P.
,
2011
, “
A Numerical Simulation Model of High Temperature Fuel Cells Fed by Biogas
,”
Energy Sources, Part A
,
34
(
2
), pp.
101
110
.
22.
Corigliano
,
O.
,
Florio
,
G.
, and
Fragiacomo
,
P.
,
2011
, “
A Performance Analysis of an AnaerobicDigester—High Temperature Fuel Cells Fed by Urban Solid Waste Biogas
,”
Energy Sources, Part A
,
34
(
3
), pp.
207
218
.
23.
Henriksen
,
U.
,
Ahrenfeldt
,
J.
,
Jensen
,
T. K.
,
Gøbel
,
B.
,
Bentzen
,
J. D.
,
Hindsgaul
,
C.
, and
Sørensen
,
L. H.
,
2006
, “
The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier
,”
Energy
,
31
(
10–11
), pp.
1542
1553
.
24.
Ahrenfeldt
,
J.
,
Henriksen
,
U.
,
Jensen
,
T. K.
,
Gøbel
,
B.
,
Wiese
,
L.
,
Kather
,
A.
, and
Egsgaard
,
H.
,
2006
, “
Validation of a Continuous Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Operation of a Two-Stage Biomass Gasifier
,”
Energy Fuels
,
20
(
6
), pp.
2672
2680
.
25.
Hofmann
,
P.
,
Schweiger
,
A.
,
Fryda
,
L.
,
Panopoulos
,
K. D.
,
Hohenwarter
,
U.
,
Bentzen
,
J. D.
,
Ouweltjes
,
J. P.
,
Ahrenfeldt
,
J.
,
Henriksen
,
U.
, and
Kakaras
,
E.
,
2007
, “
High Temperature Electrolyte Supported Ni-GDC/YSZ/LSM SOFC Operation on Two-Stage Viking Gasifier Product Gas
,”
J. Power Sources
,
173
(
1
), pp.
357
366
.
26.
Bang-Moller
,
C.
, and
Rokni
,
M.
,
2010
, “
Thermodynamic Performance Study of Biomass Gasification, Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
51
(
11
), pp.
2330
2339
.
27.
ARERA, 2002, “
Deliberazione 19 marzo 2002
,” ARERA, Milan, Italy.
28.
Rokni
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Thermodynamic Analyses of Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Stirling Hybrid System
,”
Int. J. Hydrogen Energy
,
40
(
24
), pp.
7855
7869
.
29.
Macchi, Campanari, and Silva
,
2006
, “
La microcogenerazione a gas naturale
,” Polipress, Milan, Italy.
You do not currently have access to this content.