In order to enhance biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of duckweed, and duckweed with excess sludge as single and mixed substrates, the effects of hot alkali pretreatment and variation of the ratio of substrate to inoculum were investigated. The results showed that the delayed stage of anaerobic gas generation could be shortened when the two substrates were mixed during methane production, to give a cumulative gas yield of 2963 mL, which was 11% higher than the calculated value for the complementary substrate. The methane content was 57%, which was 13% higher than that from the duckweed group and 9% higher than from the excess sludge group. Furthermore, the methane yield was improved by 8% after the duckweed was pretreated with hot alkali. When the substrate to inoculum ratio was 1:1, the maximum biogas production of 3309 mL was achieved, with a methane yield of 1883 mL which, respectively, increases of 151 mL and 304 mL compared with the worst group (1:2.5).

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