Vehicles are getting transformed from a single source of energy to dual or multiple sources of energy due to ever-increasing fuel problems and environment-related issues. Although hybrid vehicles provide environmental friendly option, however, they require sophisticated mechanical, electrical, and electronic parts and systems. As a result, hybrid cars are more expensive than fossil fuel-based conventional cars. One of the cost effective options is to convert used fossil fuel-based conventional cars into hybrid or electric cars. This conversion requires installation of electric motor and complex electronic control system for smooth and safe operation. This paper presents necessary details about the conversion of a conventional fossil fuel-based car into a solar-electric hybrid (SOLECT) car. Conversion of a conventional car into a SOLECT car can help people to save on fuel costs and protect environment.

References

References
1.
Davis
,
S. C.
,
Diegel
,
S. W.
, and
Boundy
,
R. G.
,
2013
, “
Transportation Energy Data Book
,”
Center for Transportation Analysis, Energy and Transportation Science Division
,
32nd ed.
,
U.S. Department of Energy
,
Springfield, IL
.
2.
Tanaka
,
N.
,
2009
,
Transport, Energy and CO2
,
International Energy Agency
,
Paris, France
.
3.
Schäfer
,
A.
,
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
Jacoby
,
H. D.
, and
Waitz
,
I. A.
,
2009
,
Transportation in a Climate-Constrained World
,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge, MA
.
4.
Mehta
,
R.
,
Shah
,
P.
,
Gupta
,
H.
,
Bhat
,
P.
,
Gandhi
,
V.
,
Kale
,
K.
,
Taldevhar
,
M.
,
Singh
,
A.
,
Ghoroi
,
C.
, and
Bhargavand
,
A.
,
2014
, “Conversion of a CNG Powered Auto Rickshaw to an Electric Rickshaw Designed for Indian Conditions,”
SAE
Paper No. 2014-01-1968.
5.
Wakefield
,
E. H.
,
1994
,
History of the Electric Automobile
,
Society of Automotive Engineers
,
Warrendale, PA
.
6.
Wakefield
,
E. H.
,
1998
,
History of the Electric Automobile: Hybrid Electric Vehicles
,
Society of Automotive Engineers
,
Warrendale, PA
.
7.
Westbrook
,
M. H.
,
2001
,
The Electric Car: Development and Future of Battery, Hybrid and Fuel-Cell Cars
,
Society of Automotive Engineers
,
Warrendale, PA
.
8.
Høyer
,
K. G.
,
2008
, “
The History of Alternative Fuels in Transportation: The Case of Electric and Hybrid Cars
,”
Util. Policy
,
16
(
2
), pp.
63
71
.
9.
Chan
,
C. C.
,
2007
, “
The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles
,”
Proc. IEEE
,
95
(
4
), pp.
704
718
.
10.
Malikopoulos
,
A. A.
,
2013
, “
Impact of Component Sizing In Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
135
(
4
), p.
041201
.
11.
Himelic
,
J.
, and
Kreith
,
F.
,
2011
, “
Potential Benefits of Plug-In Hybrid ElectricVehicle for Consumers and Electric Power Utilities
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
133
(
3
), p.
031001
.
12.
Tse
,
C. G.
,
Maples
,
B. A.
, and
Kreith
,
F.
,
2015
, “
The Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Peak Shaving
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011201
.
13.
Boretti
,
A. A.
,
2012
, “
Energy Recovery in Passenger Cars
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
2
), p.
022203
.
14.
Mi
,
C.
,
Masrur
,
M. A.
, and
Gao
,
D. W.
,
2011
,
Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Principle and Applications With Practical Perspective
,
Wiley
,
Chichester, UK
.
15.
Ministry of Energy (Petroleum Division),
2015
, “Pakistan Petroleum Sector Quarterly Report,” Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan, accessed Dec. 4, 2017, http://www.mpnr.gov.pk/mpnr/userfiles1/file/MPNRECCReportFinal-Updated%2009-Apr-2015.pdf
16.
Pirzada
,
B. K.
, and
Ahmed
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Effect of New Technology on Firms Business Objectives: A Case Study of Pak-Suzuki Company
,”
Int. J. Bus. Admin.
,
4
(
3
), pp.
95
101
.
17.
Nakir
,
I.
,
Durusu
,
A.
,
Akca
,
H.
,
Ajder
,
A.
,
Ayaz
,
R.
,
Ugur
,
E.
, and
Tanrioven
,
M.
,
2015
, “
A New MPPT Algorithm for Vehicle Integrated Solar Energy System
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
138
(
2
), p.
021601
.
19.
Yedamale
,
P.
,
2003
, “Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Fundamentals,” Microchip Technology, Chandler, AZ.
20.
Pillay
,
P.
, and
Krishnan
,
R.
,
1991
, “
Application Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motors for Servo Drives
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl.
,
27
(
5
), pp.
986
996
.
21.
Buchmann
,
I.
,
2016
,
Batteries in a Portable World: A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers
,
4th ed.
, Cadex Electronics Inc.,
Richmond, BC, Canada
.
22.
Fetcenko
,
M. A.
,
Ovshinsky
,
S. R.
,
Reichman
,
B.
,
Young
,
K.
,
Fierro
,
C.
,
Koch
,
J.
,
Zallen
,
A.
,
Mays
,
W.
, and
Ouchi
,
T.
,
2007
, “
Recent Advances in NiMH Battery Technology
,”
J. Power Sources
,
165
(
2
), pp.
544
551
.
23.
Trumboreed
,
F. A.
,
1995
, “Modern Battery Technology,” Center for Professional Advancement, Brunswick, NJ.
24.
Fetcenko
,
M. A.
,
Venkatesan
,
S.
, and
Ovshinsky
,
S. R.
,
1991
, “
Selection of Metal Hydride Alloys for Electrochemical Applications
,”
Electrochem. Soc. Proc.
,
92
(
5
), pp.
141
167
.
25.
Nelson
,
R. F.
,
2002
, “
High-Power Batteries for the New 36/42 V Automotive Systems
,”
J. Power Sources
,
107
(
2
), pp.
226
239
.
26.
Oman
,
H.
,
1998
, “
On-Board Energy and Power Management on Electric Vehicles: Effect of Battery Type
,” The AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Systems Conference (
DASC
), Bellevue, WA, Oct. 31–Nov. 7, pp. I43/1–I43/6.
27.
Muniappan
,
A.
,
Thiagarajan
,
C.
,
Kumar
,
G. A.
,
Joseph Raj
,
X.
,
Irene
,
J.
, and
Niranjan
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Conversion of Conventional Vehicle Into Solar Powered Electric Vehicle—A Realistic Approach
,”
Int. J. Innovative Res. Sci., Eng. Technol.
,
3
(
9
), pp.
16232
16237
.
28.
Radu
,
R.
,
Micheli
,
D.
,
Alessandrini
,
S.
,
Casula
,
I.
, and
Radu
,
B.
,
2015
, “
Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Integrated System: Variable Speed Operated Internal Combustion Engine Combined Heat and Power Unit-Photovoltaic Array
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
137
(
3
), p.
032001
.
29.
Haaren
,
R. V.
,
2011
, “Assessment of Electric Cars' Range Requirements and Usage Patterns Based on Driving Behavior Recorded in the National Household Travel Survey of 2009,” A Study Conducted as Part of Solar Journey USA, Earth and Environmental Engineering Department, Columbia University, New York, accessed Dec. 4, 2017, http://www.solarjourneyusa.com/HowFarWeDrive_v1.2.pdf
You do not currently have access to this content.