The phenomenon of liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargo weathering is considered in terms of the conditions influencing boil-off gas (BOG) rates during the offshore movements and handling of LNG on marine LNG carriers (LNGC), floating storage and regasification unit (FSRU), and floating storage units (FSU). The range of compositions (grades) of commercially traded LNG is significantly broader than the range of compositional changes caused by typical storage times for offshore LNG cargoes. The different nitrogen and natural gas–liquid concentrations of LNG cargoes (i.e., ethane and heavier C2+ components) significantly influence the impacts of weathering and ultimately determine whether the LNG delivered to customers is within sales specifications or not. The BOG from LNG in storage is richer in methane and nitrogen; if nitrogen is present in the LNG, otherwise just richer in methane, than the LNG from which it is derived. This leads to the LNG becoming richer in the C2+ components as ageing progresses. LNG weathering is shown not to play a significant role in the rollover phenomenon of LNG moved and stored offshore, because nitrogen contents are low (typically < 1.0%) and auto-stratification is rarely an issue. LNG stored for long periods on FSU (greater than 8 weeks, or so) experiences significant weathering effects, but most LNG processed by FSRU (and most FSU) has a residence time of less than 30 days or so, in which case weathering has only minor operational impacts. Weathering rates and LNG compositional changes on FSRU for different LNG grades are provided.
Weathering/Ageing of Liquefied Natural Gas Cargoes During Marine Transport and Processing on Floating Storage Units and FSRU
Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received January 6, 2018; final manuscript received March 29, 2018; published online May 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Ray (Zhenhua) Rui.
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Wood, D. A., and Kulitsa, M. (May 8, 2018). "Weathering/Ageing of Liquefied Natural Gas Cargoes During Marine Transport and Processing on Floating Storage Units and FSRU." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. October 2018; 140(10): 102901. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4039981
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