In-cylinder flows in internal combustion (IC) engines have always been a focus of study in order to gain better understanding of fuel–air mixing process and combustion optimization. Different conventional experimental techniques such as hot wire anemometry (HWA), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulations have been grossly inadequate for complete understanding of the complex 3D flows inside the engine cylinder. In this experimental study, tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) was applied in a four-valve, single-cylinder optical research engine, with an objective of investigating the in-cylinder flow evolution during intake and compression strokes in an engine cycle. In-cylinder flow seeded with ultra-fine graphite particles was illuminated by a high energy, high frequency Nd:YLF laser. The motion of these tracer particles was captured using two cameras from different viewing angles. These two-directional projections of flowfield were used to reconstruct the 3D flowfield of the measurement volume (36 × 25 × 8 mm3), using multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) algorithm. Captured images of 50 consecutive engine cycles were ensemble averaged to analyze the in-cylinder flow evolution. Results indicated that the in-cylinder flows are dependent on the piston position and spatial location inside the engine cylinder. The randomness of air-flow fields during the intake stroke was very high, which became more homogeneous during the compression stroke. The flows were found to be highly dependent on Z plane location inside the engine. During the intake stroke, flows were highly turbulent throughout the engine cylinder, and velocities vectors were observed in all directions. However, during the compression stroke, flow velocities were higher near the injector, and they reduced closer to the valves. Absolute velocity during compression stroke was mainly contributed by the out of plane velocity (Vz) component.

References

References
1.
Maurya
,
R. K.
, and
Agarwal
,
A. K.
,
2015
, “
Combustion and Emission Characterization of n-Butanol Fuelled HCCI Engine
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
137
(
1
), p.
011101
.
2.
Love
,
N. D.
,
Parthasarathy
,
R. N.
, and
Gollahalli
,
S. R.
,
2009
, “
Rapid Characterization of Radiation and Pollutant Emissions of Biodiesel and Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuels
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
(
1
), p.
012202
.
3.
Loüffler
,
G.
,
Andahazy
,
D.
,
Wartha
,
C.
,
Winter
,
F.
, and
Hofbauer
,
H.
,
2001
, “
NOx and N2O Formation Mechanisms—A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study on a Single Fuel Particle in a Laboratory-Scale Fluidized Bed
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
123
(
3
), pp.
228
235
.
4.
Singh
,
A. P.
, and
Agarwal
,
A. K.
,
2006
, “
Diesoline, Diesohol, and Diesosene Fuelled HCCI Engine Development
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
138
(
5
), p.
052212
.
5.
KidoguchI
,
Y.
,
Yang
,
C.
, and
Miwa
,
K.
,
1999
, “
Effect of High Squish Combustion Chamber on Simultaneous Reduction of NOx and Particulate From a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 1999-01-1502.
6.
Bergstrand
,
P.
, and
Denbratt
,
I.
,
2002
, “
The Effects of Leaner Charge and Swirl on Diesel Combustion
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2002-01-1633.
7.
Semenov
,
E. S.
,
1958
, “
Studies of Turbulent Gas Flow in Piston Engines
,” Otedelinie Technicheskikh Nauk, NASA Technical Translation F97, Report No. 8.
8.
Tutak
,
W.
, and
Jamrozik
,
A.
,
1990
, “
Characteristics of the Flow Field in the Combustion Chamber of the Internal Combustion Test Engine
,”
Chem. Process Eng.
,
32
(
3
), pp.
203
214
.
9.
Catania
,
A. E.
,
Dongiovanni
,
C.
,
Mittica
,
A.
,
Molina
,
G.
, and
Spessa
,
E.
,
1995
, “
A New Test Bench for HWA Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of a Two-Valved In-Piston-Bowl Production Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 952467.
10.
Kang
,
K. Y.
, and
Back
,
J. H.
,
1995
, “
LDV Measurement and Analysis of Tumble Formation and Decay in a Four-Valve Engine
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
181
189
.
11.
Driver
,
T.
,
Schinetsky
,
P.
,
Davis
,
J.
,
Drabo
,
M.
,
Ölçmen
,
S. M.
, and
Ashford
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Measurement and Analysis of Unsteady Flows in IC Engines
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2010-1215.
12.
Novotný
,
J.
, and
Manoch
,
L.
,
2010
, “
The Criterion of Choosing the Proper Seeding Particles
,”
18th International Conference on Engineering Mechanics
, Svratka, Czech Republic, May 14–17, Paper No.
201
, pp.
945
954
.http://www.engmech.cz/2012/proceedings/pdf/201_Novotny_J-FT.pdf
13.
Hadad
,
T.
, and
Gurka
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Effects of Particle Size, Concentration and Surface Coating on Turbulent Flow Properties Obtained Using PIV/PTV
,”
Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci.
,
45
, pp.
203
212
.
14.
Disch
,
C.
,
Kubach
,
H.
,
Spicher
,
U.
,
Pfeil
,
J.
,
Altenschmidt
,
F.
, and
Schaupp
,
U.
,
2013
, “
Investigations of Spray-Induced Vortex Structures During Multiple Injections of a DISI Engine in Stratified Operation Using High-Speed-PIV
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2013-01-0563.
15.
Nishiyama
,
A.
,
Jeong
,
H.
,
Ikeda
,
Y.
, and
Sawada
,
R.
,
2012
, “
Application of Endoscopic Stereo PIV to 3-D Exhaust Gas Flow Measurements in a Practical SI Engine
,”
16th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics
, Lisbon, Portugal, July 9–12, Paper No. 241.http://ltces.dem.ist.utl.pt/LXLASER/lxlaser2012/upload/241_paper_pnisni.pdf
16.
Sweetland
,
P.
, and
Reitz
,
R. D.
,
1994
, “
Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements in the Piston Bowl of a DI Diesel Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 940283.
17.
Reeves
,
M.
,
Towers
,
D. P.
,
Tavender
,
B.
, and
Buckberry
,
C. H.
,
1999
, “
A High-Speed All-Digital Technique for Cycle-Resolved 2-D Flow Measurement and Flow Visualization Within SI Engine Cylinders
,”
Opt. Lasers Eng.
,
31
(
4
), pp.
247
261
.
18.
Dannemann
,
J.
,
Klaas
,
M.
, and
Schröder
,
W.
,
2010
, “
Three Dimensional Flow Field Within a Four Valve Combustion Engine Measured by Particle-Image Velocimetry
,”
14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization
(
ISFV
), EXCO Daegu, South Korea, June 21–24, pp. 21–24.http://www.aia.rwth-aachen.de/vlueb/staff/homes/23/publications/ISFV14_Jan_Dannemann.pdf
19.
Das
,
D. M.
,
2003
, “
Computational and Experimental Study of In-Cylinder Flow in a Direct Injection Gasoline (DIG) Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2003-01-3083.
20.
Elsinga
,
G. E.
,
Scarano
,
F.
,
Wieneke
,
B.
, and
Oudheusden
,
B. W. E.
,
2006
, “
Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry
,”
Exp. Fluids
,
41
(
6
), pp.
933
947
.
21.
Scarano
,
F.
,
2012
, “
Tomographic PIV: Principles and Practice
,”
Meas. Sci.
,
24
(
1
), p.
012001
.
22.
Baum
,
E.
,
Peterson
,
B.
,
Surmann
,
C.
,
Michaelis
,
D.
,
Böhm
,
B.
, and
Dreizler
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Investigation of the 3-D Flow Field in an IC Engine Using Tomographic PIV
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
34
(
2
), pp.
2903
2910
.
23.
Overbrueggen
,
T.
,
Klaas
,
M.
,
Bahl
,
B.
, and
Schroeder
,
W.
,
2015
, “
Tomographic Particle-Image Velocimetry Analysis of In-Cylinder Flows
,”
SAE Int. J. Engines
,
8
(
3
), pp.
1447
1467
.
24.
Overbrüggen
,
T.
,
Bücker
,
I.
,
Dannemann
,
J.
,
Karhoff
,
D. C.
,
Klaas
,
M.
, and
Schröder
,
W.
,
2015
, “
Planar Stereoscopic and Holographic PIV-Measurements of the In-Cylinder Flow of Combustion Engines
,”
Fuels from Biomass: An Interdisciplinary Approach
, Springer, Berlin, pp.
155
191
.
25.
Singh
,
A. P.
,
Gupta
,
A.
, and
Agarwal
,
A. K.
,
2015
, “
Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine
,”
SAE Int. J. Mater. Manuf.
,
8
(
2
), pp.
472
481
.
26.
Singh
,
A. P.
,
Gadekar
,
S.
, and
Agarwal
,
A. K.
,
2016
, “
In-Cylinder Air-Flow Characteristics Using Tomographic PIV at Different Engine Speeds, Intake Air Temperatures and Intake Valve Deactivation in a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2016-28-0001.
27.
Foucher
,
F.
,
Landry
,
L.
,
Halter
,
F.
, and
Mounaim-Rousselle
,
C.
,
2008
, “
Turbulent Flow Fields Analysis of a Spark-Ignition Engine as Function of the Boosted Pressure
,”
14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics
, Lisbon, Portugal, July 7–10, Paper No. 12.2_3.http://ltces.dem.ist.utl.pt/lxlaser/lxlaser2008/papers/12.2_3.pdf
28.
Deslandes
,
W.
,
Dupont
,
A.
,
Georges
,
X. B.
, and
Boree
,
C. J.
,
2003
, “
PIV Measurements of Internal Aerodynamic of Diesel Combustion Chamber
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2003-01-3083.
29.
Lumley
,
J. L.
, 1999,
Chapter 5: Flow in the Cylinder Engines—An introduction
,
Cornell University, Cambridge University Press
, Cambridge, UK.
30.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1987
, “
Fluid Motion Within the Cylinder of Internal Combustion Engines
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
109
(
1
), pp.
3
35
.
31.
Heywood
,
J. B.
,
1988
,
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
32.
Reuss
,
D. L.
,
2000
, “
Cyclic Variability of Large-Scale Turbulent Structures in Directed and Undirected IC Engine Flows
,”
SAE
Paper No. 2000-01-0246.
33.
Huang
,
R. F.
,
Huang
,
C. W.
,
Chang
,
S. B.
,
Yang
,
H. S.
,
Lin
,
T. W.
, and
Hsu
,
W. Y.
,
2005
, “
Topological Flow Evolutions in Cylinder of a Motored Engine During Intake and Compression Strokes
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
20
(
1
), pp.
105
127
.
You do not currently have access to this content.