Formation damage from aqueous phase trapping in low-permeability sandstones can be removed using mutual solvents, blends of alcohols and mutual solvents, and surfactants. These treatments modify the interfacial tension of the trapped fluids or the wettability of the formation. However, treatments intended to remove a certain type of damage may cause other types of formation damage due to incompatibility with the rock and formation fluids. High-frequency acoustic waves have been used in industrial applications to clean up and remove contaminants. Important studies have been conducted to extend the use of acoustic waves for wellbore stimulation. This technical paper presents a laboratory investigation to determine the effects of ultrasonic (UT) treatment on interfacial tension and wettability alteration during invasion of fracturing fluids treated with surfactants in low-permeability sandstones. An experimental program consisting of a series of spontaneous imbibition experiments was conducted to measure the spontaneous imbibition potential of sandstone rock cores treated with surfactants in the presence of UT energy. Spontaneous imbibition tests were conducted in two steps. In the first, spontaneous imbibition tests were conducted on untreated low-permeability sandstone core samples in the presence of UT radiation. In the second step, spontaneous imbibition tests were conducted on cores flooded with surfactant while exposing the core to UT radiation from an acoustic horn. In each series experiments, the power output was changed to monitor the effect of acoustic power on wettability alteration. Results obtained from the experiments showed that acoustic stimulation improves imbibition of water in both water wet and intermediate wet cores. Wettability alteration is attributed to enhancement of capillary forces in water wet cores. For cores treated with water repelling surfactants, improvement in imbibition is attributed to detachment of surfactant molecules from the pore walls due to acoustic streaming of sonic waves. This research was originally intended to investigate removal of trapped water from fluid injection of low-permeability sandstones by acoustic stimulation. However, the obtained results show that it is possible to improve the recovery of trapped hydrocarbon in low-permeability sandstones under the influence of acoustic stimulation.

References

References
1.
Venkitaraman
,
A.
,
Roberts
,
P. M.
, and
Sharma
,
M. M.
,
1995
, “
Ultrasonic Removal of Near-Wellbore Damage Caused by Fines and Mud Solids
,”
SPE Drill. Completion
,
10
(
3
), pp.
193
197
.
2.
Wong
,
S.-W.
,
van der Bas
,
F.
,
Groenenboom
,
J.
, and
Zuiderwijk
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Near Wellbore Stimulation by Acoustic Waves
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-82198-MS.https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/SPE-82198-MS
3.
Wong
,
S.-W.
,
Guo
,
Q.
,
Abou-Sayed
,
A. S.
, and
Engel
,
H. R.
,
2004
, “
High-Power/High-Frequency Acoustic Stimulation: A Novel and Effective Wellbore Stimulation Technology
,”
SPE Prod. Facil.
,
19
(
4
), pp.
183
188
.
4.
Poesio
,
P.
,
Ooms
,
G.
,
Barake
,
S.
, and
van der Bas
,
F.
,
2002
, “
An Investigation of the Influence of Acoustic Waves on the Liquid Flow Through a Porous Material
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
111
(
5
), pp.
2019
2025
.
5.
Poesio
,
P.
, and
Ooms
,
G.
,
2004
, “
Formation and Ultrasonic Removal of Fouling Particle Structures in a Natural Porous Material
,”
J. Pet. Sci. Eng.
,
45
(
3–4
), pp.
159
178
.
6.
Poesio
,
P.
,
Ooms
,
G.
,
van Dongen
,
M. E. H.
, and
Smeulders
,
D. M. J.
,
2004
, “
Removal of Small Particles From a Porous Material by Ultrasonic Irradiation
,”
Transp. Porous Media
,
54
(
3
), pp.
239
264
.
7.
Gollapudi
,
U. K.
,
Bang
,
S. S.
, and
Islam
,
M. R.
,
1994
, “
Ultrasonic Treatment for Removal of Asphaltene Deposits During Petroleum Production
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-27377-MS.
8.
Abad-Guerra
,
B. P.
,
1976
, “
Methods for Restoring Productivity to Gas Wells in the Clinton Sand of Ohio: A Laboratory and Field Experiment
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA.https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6539690
9.
Gadiev
,
S. M.
,
1977
,
Use of Vibrations in Oil Production
(Ispol'zovaniye Vibratsiiv Dobyche Nefti),
Nedra Press
,
Moscow, Russia
.
10.
Gunal
,
O. G.
, and
Islam
,
M. R.
,
2000
, “
Alteration of Asphaltic Crude Rheology With Electromagnetic and Ultrasonic Irradiation
,”
J. Pet. Sci. Eng.
,
26
(
1–4
), pp.
263
272
.
11.
Li
,
W. Q.
,
Li
,
W.
,
Vigil
,
R. D.
,
Beresnev
,
I. A.
,
Iassonov
,
P.
, and
Ewing
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Vibration-Induced Mobilization of Trapped Oil Ganglia in Porous Media: Experimental Validation of a Capillary-Physics Mechanism
,”
J. Colloid Interface Sci.
,
289
(
1
), pp.
193
199
.
12.
Beresnev
,
I. A.
,
Vigil
,
D.
, and
Li
,
W.
,
2005
, “
The Mechanism of Recovery of Residual Oil by Elastic Waves and Vibrations
,”
SEG Technical Program Expanded Abstracts 24
, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, Tulsa, OK, pp. 1386–1389.
13.
Kuznetsov
,
O. L.
,
Simkin
,
E. M.
,
Chilingar
,
G. V.
,
Gorfunkel
,
M. V.
, and
Robertson
,
J. O.
,
2002
, “
Seismic Techniques of Enhanced Oil Recovery: Experimental and Field Results
,”
Energy Sources
,
24
(
9
), pp.
877
889
.
14.
Spanos
,
T.
,
Davidson
,
B.
,
Dusseault
,
M.
,
Shand
,
D.
, and
Samaroo
,
M.
,
2003
, “
Pressure Pulsing at the Reservoir Scale: A New IOR Approach
,”
J. Can. Pet. Technol.
,
42
(
2
), pp.
16
28
.
15.
Westermark
,
R. V.
,
Brett
,
J. F.
, and
Maloney
,
D. R.
,
2001
, “
Enhanced Oil Recovery With Downhole Vibration Stimulation
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-67303-MS.
16.
Zhu
,
T.
,
Xutao
,
H.
, and
Vajjha
,
P.
,
2005
, “
Downhole Harmonic Vibration Oil-Displacement System: A New IOR Tool
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-94001-MS.
17.
Kesana
,
N. R.
,
Grubb
,
S. A.
,
Mclaury
,
B. S.
, and
Shirazi
,
S. A.
,
2013
, “
Ultrasonic Measurement of Multiphase Flow Erosion Patterns in a Standard Elbow
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
135
(
3
), p.
032905
.
18.
Penny
,
G. S.
,
Conway
,
M. W.
, and
Briscoe
,
J. E.
,
1983
, “
Enhanced Load Water-Recovery Technique Improves Stimulation Results
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-12149-MS.
19.
Nasr-El-Din
,
H. A.
,
2005
, “
Formation Damage Induced by Chemical Treatments: Case Histories
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
127
(
3
), pp.
214
224
.
20.
Penny
,
G.
,
Pursley
,
J. T.
, and
Holcomb
,
D.
,
2005
, “
Microemulsion Additives Enable Optimized Formation Damage Repair and Prevention
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
127
(
3
), pp.
233
239
.
21.
Li
,
K.
, and
Firoozabadi
,
A.
,
2000
, “
Experimental Study of Wettability Alteration to Preferential Gas-Wetting in Porous Media and Its Effects
,”
SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
1
11
.
22.
Tang
,
G. Q.
, and
Firoozabadi
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting in Porous Media at Elevated Temperatures
,”
Transp. Porous Media
,
52
(
2
), pp.
185
211
.
23.
Kumar
,
V.
,
Bang
,
V.
,
Pope
,
G. A.
,
Sharma
,
M. M.
,
Ayyalasomayajula
,
P. S.
, and
Kamath
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Chemical Stimulation of Gas-Condensate Reservoirs
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-102669-MS.
24.
Panga
,
M. K. R.
,
Ooi
,
Y. S.
,
Koh
,
P. L.
,
Chan
,
K. S.
,
Enkababian
,
P. G.
,
Cheneviere
,
P.
, and
Samuel
,
M. M.
,
2006
, “
Wettability Alteration for Water Block Prevention in High Temperature Gas Wells
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-100182-MS.
25.
Fahes
,
M.
, and
Firoozabadi
,
A.
,
2005
, “
Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting in Gas-Condensate Reservoirs at High Temperatures
,”
SPE
Paper No. SPE-96184-PA.
26.
Bang
,
V. S. S.
,
Yuan
,
C.
,
Pope
,
G. A.
,
Sharma
,
M. M.
,
Baran
,
J. R.
, Jr.
,
Skildum
,
J.
, and
Linnemeyer
,
H. C.
,
2008
, “
Improving Productivity of Hydraulically Fractured Gas Condensate Wells by Chemical Treatment
,”
Offshore Technology Conference (OTC)
, Houston, TX, May 5–8, Paper No.
OTC-19599-MS
.
27.
Feng
,
C. Y.
,
Kong
,
Y.
,
Jiang
,
G.
,
Pu
,
C.
, and
Zhang
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Wettability Alteration of Rock Cores by Fluorinated Copolymer Emulsion for the Enhancement of Gas and Oil Recovery
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
258
(
18
), pp.
7075
7081
.
28.
Yassin
,
M.
,
Ayatollahi
,
S.
,
Rostami
,
B.
,
Hassani
,
K.
, and
Taghikhani
,
V.
,
2015
, “
Micro-Emulsion Phase Behavior of a Cationic Surfactant at Intermediate Interfacial Tension in Sandstone and Carbonate Rocks
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
137
(
1
), p.
012905
.
29.
Xiao
,
B.
,
Jiang
,
T.
, and
Zhang
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Novel Nanocomposite Fiber-Laden Viscoelastic Fracturing Fluid for Coal Bed Methane Reservoir Stimulation
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
139
(
2
), p.
022906
.
You do not currently have access to this content.