Designing smart water (SW) by optimizing the chemical composition of injected brine is a promising low-cost technique that has been developed for both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs for several decades. In this study, the impact of SW flooding during tertiary oil recovery phase was investigated by core flooding analysis of pure limestone carbonate rocks. Increasing the sulfate ion concentration by using CaSO4 and MgSO4 of NaCl concentration and finally reducing the total salinity were the main manipulations performed to optimize SW. The main objective of this research is to compare active cations including Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the presence of sulfate ions with regard to their efficiency in the enhancement of oil production during SW flooding of carbonate cores. The results revealed a 14.5% increase in the recovery factor by CaSO4 proving its greater effectiveness compared to MgSO4, which led to an 11.5% production enhancement. It was also realized that low-salinity water flooding (LSWF) did not lead to a significant positive effect as it contributed less than 2% in the tertiary stage.
Optimization of Smart Water Chemical Composition for Carbonate Rocks Through Comparison of Active Cations Performance
Contributed by the Petroleum Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 22, 2016; final manuscript received June 1, 2017; published online July 27, 2017. Editor: Hameed Metghalchi.
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Jalilian, M., Pourafshary, P., Sola, B. S., and Kamari, M. (July 27, 2017). "Optimization of Smart Water Chemical Composition for Carbonate Rocks Through Comparison of Active Cations Performance." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. November 2017; 139(6): 062904. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4037215
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