Anthropogenic heat generation in the world has been shown to be non-negligible, as it was a previous misconception. The scientific contribution of the current work is to urge scientists and engineers to develop technologies to reject heat from engineering systems to outer space. Outer space acts as a definitive heat sink since a statistical average temperature may be assigned to it as 3 K. This temperature is a lot lower than the average temperature anywhere on Earth, at any time of the year. Until recently, the concept was well known but not systematically developed nor advanced using modern engineering knowledge. Looking at recent figures of heat generated associated with power plants worldwide, a theoretical potential exists to reduce the amount of anthropogenic heat rejected in the world's environment by very significant amounts. Outer space is the ultimate sink for man's heat from engineered systems, and the upper limit is comfortably very large to not be of any concern at the present time.

References

References
1.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
2010
, “
The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Heat Release to the Global Environment by Human Activities
,”
ASME
Paper No. IMECE2010-38201.
2.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
Dai
,
Y.
, and
Paul
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Anthropogenic Heat Release Into the Environment
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
4
), p.
041602
.
3.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
2016
,
Climate Change
,
Momentum Press
,
New York
, p.
195
.
4.
Ali
,
A. H.
,
Taha
,
I. M.
, and
Ismail
,
I. M.
,
1995
, “
Cooling of Water Flowing Through a Night Sky Radiator
,”
Sol. Energy
,
55
(
4
), pp.
235
253
.
5.
Ali
,
A. H.
,
2007
, “
Passive Cooling of Water at Night in Uninsulated Open Tank in Hot Arid Areas
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
48
(
1
), pp.
93
100
.
6.
Zhang
,
S.
, and
Niu
,
J.
,
2012
, “
Cooling Performance of Nocturnal Radiative Cooling Combined With Microencapsulated Phase Change Material (MPCM) Slurry Storage
,”
Energy Build.
,
54
, pp.
122
130
.
7.
Zeyghami
,
M.
, and
Khalili
,
F.
,
2015
, “
Performance Improvement of Dry Cooled Advanced Concentrating Solar Power Plants Using Daytime Radiative Cooling
,”
Energy Convers. Manage.
,
106
, pp. 10–20.
8.
Raman
,
A. P.
,
Anoma
,
M. A.
,
Zhu
,
L.
,
Rephaeli
,
E.
, and
Fan
,
S.
,
2014
, “
Passive Radiative Cooling Below Ambient Air Temperature Under Direct Sunlight
,”
Nature
,
515
(
7528
), pp.
540
544
.
9.
Kelso
,
J. K.
, ed.,
2011
,
Buildings Energy Data Book
,
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
,
Washington, DC
.
10.
Isaac
,
M.
, and
van Vuuren
,
D. P.
,
2009
, “
Modeling Global Residential Sector Energy Demand for Heating and Air Conditioning in the Context of Climate Change
,”
Energy Policy
,
37
(
2
), pp.
507
521
.
11.
Hansen
,
J.
,
Nazarenko
,
L.
,
Ruedy
,
R.
,
Sato
,
M.
,
Willis
,
J.
,
Del Genio
,
A.
,
Koch
,
D.
,
Lacis
,
A.
,
Lo
,
K.
,
Menon
,
S.
,
Novakov
,
T.
,
Perlwitz
,
J.
,
Russell
,
G.
,
Schmidt
,
G. A.
, and
Tausnev
,
N.
,
2005
, “
Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications
,”
Science
,
308
(
5727
), pp.
1431
1435
.
12.
Gerlach
,
T.
,
2011
, “
Volcanic Versus Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide
,”
EOS, Trans., Am. Geophys. Union
,
92
(
24
), pp.
201
202
.
13.
Melius
,
J.
,
Margolis
,
R.
, and
Ong
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Estimating Rooftop Suitability for PV: A Review of Methods, Patents, and Validation Techniques
,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO,
Technical Report No. NREL/TP-6A20-60593
.
14.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
2014
, “
Recommendations for Energy Water Nexus Problems
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
136
(
3
), p.
034701
.
15.
Wong
,
K. V.
, and
Pecora
,
C.
,
2014
, “
Recommendations for Energy–Water–Food Nexus Problems
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
137
(
3
), p.
032002
.
16.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
2015
, “
Energy–Water–Food Nexus and Recommendations for Security
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
137
(3), p.
034701
.
17.
Wong
,
K. V.
, and
Pape
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Energy Conservation Via Greywater Reuse for Power Plant Cooling and Wastes Minimization
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
138
(
5
), p.
052009
.
You do not currently have access to this content.