Aftermarket dual-fuel injection systems in diesel engines using hydrous ethanol as secondary fuel have been developed as a means to lower emissions from older diesel-powered equipment. However, our previous work has shown that the emissions benefits of currently available aftermarket intake fumigation injection systems can be inconsistent with manufacturer claims. Our current study evaluates a newly developed aftermarket dual-fuel system that incorporates a fuel heating system and port fuel injection (PFI). This paper describes an experimental investigation of engine-out emissions from a John Deere 4045HF475 Tier 2 engine with port injection of 180 proof (90% ethanol by volume) hydrous ethanol. The engine was retrofitted with a custom fuel heat exchanger to heat the hydrous ethanol to a range of 46–79 °C for helping to improve fuel vaporization in the intake port. PFI duration was controlled using engine speed and throttle position as inputs to achieve a desired fumigant energy fraction (FEF), defined as the amount of energy provided by the hydrous ethanol based on lower heating value (LHV) over the total fuel energy provided to the engine. Data was collected over a range of FEF with direct injected diesel for eight operating modes comparing heated versus unheated hydrous ethanol. Results of the study indicate that as FEF increases, NO emissions decrease, while NO2, CO, THC, and unburned ethanol emissions increase. In addition, it was found that preheating the ethanol using engine coolant prior to injection has little benefit on engine-out emissions. The work shows that the implemented aftermarket dual-fuel PFI system can achieve FEF rates up to 37% at low engine load while yielding modest benefits in emissions.

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