Air-conditioning loads during the warmer months of the year are large contributors to an increase in the daily peak electrical demand. Traditionally, utility companies boost output to meet daily cooling load spikes, often using expensive and polluting fossil fuel plants to match the demand. Likewise, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system components must be sized to meet these peak cooling loads. However, the use of a properly sized stratified chilled-water storage system in conjunction with conventional HVAC system components can shift daily energy peaks from cooling loads to off-peak hours. This process is examined in light of the recent development of small modular nuclear reactors (SMRs). In this study, primary components of an air-conditioning system with a stratified chilled-water storage tank were modeled in FORTRAN 95. A basic chiller operation criterion was employed. Simulation results confirmed earlier work that the air-conditioning system with thermal energy storage (TES) capabilities not only reduced daily peaks in energy demand due to facility cooling loads but also shifted the energy demand from on-peak to off-peak hours, thereby creating a more flattened total electricity demand profile. Thus, coupling chilled-water storage-supplemented HVAC systems to SMRs is appealing because of the decrease in necessary reactor power cycling, and subsequently reduced associated thermal stresses in reactor system materials, to meet daily fluctuations in cooling demand. Also, such a system can be used as a thermal sink during reactor transients or a buffer due to renewable intermittency in a nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES).
Modeling Hybrid Nuclear Systems With Chilled-Water Storage
Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received November 13, 2015; final manuscript received June 3, 2016; published online June 27, 2016. Assoc. Editor: S. O. Bade Shrestha.
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Misenheimer, C. T., and Terry, S. D. (June 27, 2016). "Modeling Hybrid Nuclear Systems With Chilled-Water Storage." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. January 2017; 139(1): 012002. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4033858
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