Reinjection is one of the most important methods to dispose fluid associated with oil and natural gas production. Disposed fluids include produced water, hydraulic fracture flow back fluids, and drilling mud fluids. Several formation damage mechanisms are associated with the injection including damage due to filter cake formed at the formation face, bacteria activity, fluid incompatibility, free gas content, and clay activation. Fractured injection is typically preferred over matrix injection because a hydraulic fracture will enhance the well injectivity and extend the well life. In a given formation, the fracture dimensions change with different injection flow rates due to the change in injection pressures. Also, for a given flow rate, the skin factor varies with time due to the fracture propagation. In this study, well test and injection history data of a class II disposal well in south Texas were used to develop an equation that correlates the skin factor to the injection flow rate and injection time. The results show that the skin factor decreases with time logarithmically as the fracture propagates. At higher injection flow rates, the skin factor achieved is lower due to the larger fracture dimensions that are developed at higher injection flow rates. The equations developed in this study can be applied for any water injector after calibrating the required coefficients using injection step rate test (SRT) data.

References

References
1.
Roach
,
R. W.
,
Carr
,
R. S.
, and
Howard
,
C. L.
,
1993
, “
An Assessment of Produced Water Impacts at Two Sites in the Galveston Bay System
,”
Second State of the Bay Symposium
, Webster, TX, Feb. 4–6, Paper No. GBNEP 23.
2.
Ali
,
M. A.
,
Currie
,
P. K.
, and
Salman
,
M. J.
,
2007
, “
Permeability Damage Due to Water Injection Containing Oil Droplets and Solid Particles at Residual Oil Saturation
,”
15th SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show Conference
, Manama, Bahrain, Mar. 11–14, Paper No. SPE-104608-MS.
3.
Technology Subgroup of the Operations and Environment Task Group
,
2011
, “
Management of Produced Water from Oil and Gas Wells
,” NPC North America Resource Development Study, National Petroleum Council, Washington, DC,
NPC
, Report No. 2-17.
4.
Clark
,
C. E.
, and
Veil
,
J. A.
,
2009
, “
Produced Water Volumes and Management Practices in the United States
,” Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Washington, DC, Report No. ANL/EVS/R-09/1.
5.
McCurdy
,
R.
,
2011
, “
Underground Injection Wells for Produced Water Disposal
,”
Technical Workshops for the Hydraulic Fracturing Study: Water Resources Management
, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, Paper No.
EPA
600/R-11/048.
6.
Diersing
,
N.
,
2009
,
Water Quality: Frequently Asked Questions
,
Florida Brooks National Marine Sanctuary
,
Key West, FL
.
7.
Patton
,
C. C.
,
1995
,
Applied Water Technology
,
2nd ed.
,
Campbell Petroleum Series
, Norman, OK.
8.
Pang
,
S.
, and
Sharma
,
M. M.
,
1997
, “
A Model for Predicting Injectivity Decline in Water-Injection Wells
,”
SPE Form. Eval. J.
,
12
(
3
), pp.
194
1201
.
9.
Bennion
,
D. B.
,
Thomas
,
F. B.
, and
Sheppard
,
D. A.
,
1992
, “
Formation Damage Due to Mineral Alteration and Wettability Changes During Hot Water and Steam Injection in Clay Bearing Sandstone Reservoirs
,”
SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium
, Lafayette, LA, Feb. 26–27, Paper No. SPE-23783-MS.
10.
Dennis
,
M.
, and
Turner
,
J.
,
1998
, “
Hydraulic Conductivity of Compacted Soil Treated With Biofilm
,”
J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng.
,
124
(
2
), pp.
120
127
.
11.
Bennion
,
D. B.
,
Bennion
,
D. W.
,
Thomas
,
F. B.
, and
Bietz
,
R. F.
,
1998
, “
Injection Water Quality—A Key Factor to Successful Waterflooding
,”
J. Can. Pet. Technol.
,
37
(
6
), pp.
53
62
.
12.
Lei
,
W.
,
Xiao-dong
,
W.
,
Xu-min
,
D.
,
Li
,
Z.
, and
Chen
,
L.
,
2012
, “
Rate Decline Curves Analysis of a Vertical Fractured Well With Fracture Face Damage
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
3
), p.
032803
.
13.
Jin
,
L.
, and
Wojtanowicz
,
A. K.
,
2014
, “
Development of Injectivity Damage Due to Oily Waste Water in Linear Flow
,”
SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control
, Lafayette, LA, Feb. 26–28, Paper No. SPE-168130-MS.
14.
Rahman
,
M. K.
,
Salim
,
M. M.
, and
Rahman
,
M. M.
,
2012
, “
Analytical Modeling of Non-Darcy Flow-Induced Conductivity Damage in Propped Hydraulic Fractures
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
4
), p.
043101
.
15.
Detienne
,
J. L.
,
Ochi
,
J.
, and
Rivet
,
P.
,
2005, January 1
, “
A Simulator For Produced Water Re-injection in Thermally Fractured Wells
,”
SPE European Formation Damage Conference
, 25–27 May, Sheveningen, The Netherlands, May 25–27, Paper No. SPE-95021-MS.
16.
van den Hoek
,
P. J.
,
Al-Masfry
,
R. A.
,
Zwarts
,
D.
,
Jansen
,
J.-D.
,
Hustedt
,
B.
, and
Van Schijndel
,
L.
,
2009
, “
Optimizing Recovery for Waterflooding Under Dynamic Induced Fracturing Conditions
,”
SPE Reservoir Eval. Eng.
,
12
(5), p. SPE-110379-PA.
17.
Perkins
,
T. K.
, and
Gonzales
,
J. A.
,
1985
, “
The Effect of Thermoelastic Stress on Injection Well Fracturing
,”
SPE J.
,
25
(
1
), pp.
78
88
.
18.
Koning
,
E. J. L.
, and
Niko
,
H.
,
1985
, “
Fractured Water-Injection Wells: A Pressure Falloff Test for Determining Fracture Dimensions
,”
SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
, Las Vegas, NV, Sept. 22–26, Paper No. SPE 14458.
19.
Economides
,
M. J.
,
Hill
,
A. D.
, and
Ehlig-Economides
,
C.
,
1994
,
Petroleum Production Systems
,
Prentice Hall
, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
20.
Ahmed
,
T.
, and
McKinney
,
P. D.
,
2005
,
Advanced Reservoir Engineering
,
Elsevier
, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
21.
Hawkins
,
M. F.
, Jr.
,
1956
, “
A Note on the Skin Effect
,”
Trans. AIME
,
207
(
1956
), pp.
356
357
.
22.
Economides
,
M. J.
,
Hill
,
A. D.
,
Ehlig-Economides
,
C.
, and
Zhu
,
D.
,
2012
,
Petroleum Production Systems
,
2nd ed.
,
Prentice Hall
, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
23.
Mathur
,
A. K.
,
Ning
,
X.
,
Marcinew
,
R. B.
,
Ehlig Economides
,
C. A.
, and
Economides
,
M. J.
,
1995
, “
Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation of Highly Permeability Formations: The Effect of Critical Fracture Parameters on Oilwell Production and Pressure
,”
SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
, Dallas, TX, Oct. 22–25, Paper No. SPE-30652-MS.
24.
Cringarten
,
A. C.
,
Ogunrewo
,
O.
, and
Uxukbayev
,
G.
,
2012
, “
Assessment of Individual Skin Factors in Gas Condensate and Volatile Oil Wells
,”
SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition
, Vienna, Austria, May 23–26, Paper No. SPE-143952-MS.
25.
Salehi
,
S.
, and
Nygaard
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Full Fluid–Solid Cohesive Finite-Element Model to Simulate Near Wellbore Fractures
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
137
(
1
), p.
012903
.
26.
Wang
,
W.
, and
Dahi Taleghani
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Simulating Multizone Fracturing in Vertical Wells
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
136
(
4
), p.
042902
.
27.
Mohamed
,
I. M.
,
Nasralla
,
R. A.
,
Sayed
,
M. A.
,
Marongiu-Porcu
,
M.
, and
Ehlig-Economides
,
C. A.
,
2011
, “
Evaluation of After-Closure Analysis Techniques for Tight and Shale Gas Formations
,”
SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition
, The Woodlands, TX, Jan. 24–26, Paper No. SPE-140136-MS.
28.
Barree
,
R. D.
,
Barree
,
V. L.
, and
Craig
,
D. P.
,
2009
, “
Holistic Fracture Diagnostics: Consistent Interpretation of Prefrac Injection Test Using Multiple Analysis Methods
,”
SPE Prod. Oper.
,
24
(
3
), pp.
396
406
.
29.
DOE
,
2004
, “
Evaluation of Impacts to Underground Sources of Drinking Water by Hydraulic Fracturing of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs
,” U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, Report No. EPA 816-R-04-003.
30.
Matthews
,
C. S.
, and
Russell
,
D. G.
,
1967
,
Pressure Buildup and Flow Tests in Wells
(Monograph Series),
Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME
,
Dallas, TX
.
You do not currently have access to this content.