This paper proposes an ammonia–water Kalina cycle driven by low-grade waste energy released from the combustion reactions of mill's rejection which is coupled with 500 MWe coal-fired thermal power plant to quantify the additional electrical power. Energy of combustion for mill rejection is computed by combustion modeling equations. A thermodynamic property calculator for the binary mixture and a computer simulation program have been developed by MS-Excel and Visual Basic for Application (VBA) to calculate and optimize the Kalina cycle operating parameters based on thermodynamic modeling equations. Variation of key operating parameters, namely, turbine inlet pressure, mass flow rate of binary mixture, and ammonia mass fraction in mixture is studied and filters the optimum value accordingly to maximize the cycle efficiency. Techno-commercial feasibility is also done through economic analysis. The results show that about 562.745 kWe power generation can be added with total plant generation for organization profit. This will enhance the combined plant efficiency from 38.559% to 38.604%. Maximum net Kalina cycle efficiency of 24.74% can be achieved with ammonia mass fraction of 0.4 at condenser back pressure of 1.957 bar and turbine inlet pressure and temperature of 20 bar and 442.40 K, respectively. Ammonia mass fraction of 0.4 is the optimum choice for 20 bar turbine inlet pressure to get maximum output after maintaining minimum 50 K degree of superheat compared to ammonia mass fraction of 0.3. The cycle performance at ammonia mass fraction of 0.4 is better than 0.5 due to less condenser back pressure. Kalina cycle operating with less mass flow rate performs higher cycle efficiency when dryness fraction at turbine exhaust is less than 1 and performance deteriorates at above 1. This deterioration is due to higher condenser energy loss carried away by cooling water (CW) flow. The simple payback period of this system is around 5.5 years if the system is running with 80% plant availability factor and 100% plant load factor.

References

References
1.
Garg
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Energy Scenario and Vision 2020 in India
,”
J. Sustainable Energy Environ.
,
3
, pp.
7
17
.
2.
Vidal
,
A.
,
Best
,
R.
,
Rivero
,
J.
, and
Cervantes
,
J.
,
2006
, “
Analysis of a Combined Power and Refrigeration Cycle by the Exergy Method
,”
J. Energy
,
31
(
15
), pp.
3401
3414
.
3.
Vidhi
,
R.
,
Kuravi
,
S.
,
Yogi
,
G. D.
,
Stefanakos
,
E.
, and
Sabau
,
A. S.
,
2013
, “
Organic Fluids in a Supercritical Rankine Cycle for Low Temperature Power Generation
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
135
(
4
), p.
042002
.
4.
Micheli
,
D.
,
Pinamonti
,
P.
,
Reini
,
M.
, and
Taccani
,
R.
,
2013
, “
Performance Analysis and Working Fluid Optimization of a Cogenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Plant
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
135
(
2
), p.
021601
.
5.
Ziviani
,
D.
,
Beyene
,
A.
, and
Venturini
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Design, Analysis and Optimization of a Micro-CHP System Based on ORC for Ultra Low Grade Thermal Energy Recovery
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
136
(
1
), p.
011602
.
6.
Madhawa Hettiarachchi
,
H.
,
Mihajlo
,
G.
, and
William
,
M.
,
2007
, “
The Performance of the KCS11 With Low-Temperature Heat Sources
,”
J. Energy Res. Technol.
,
129
(
3
), pp.
243
247
.
7.
Kalina
,
A. I.
,
1983
, “
Combined Cycle and Waste-Heat Recovery Power Systems Based on a Novel Thermodynamic Energy Cycle Utilising Low-Temperatures Heat for Power Generation
,”
ASME
Paper No. 83-JPGC-GT-3.
8.
Srinivas
,
T.
, and
Reddy
,
B. V.
,
2014
, “
Thermal Optimization of a Solar Thermal Cooling Cogeneration Plant at Low Temperature Heat Recovery
,”
ASME J. Energy Res. Technol.
,
136
(
2
), p.
021204
.
9.
El-Sayed
,
Y. M.
, and
Tribus
,
M. A.
,
1985
, “
A Theoretical Comparison of the Rankine and Kalina Cycles
,” Analysis of Energy Systems, Design and Operation, Winter Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Miami Beach, FL, Nov. 17–22, pp.
97
102
.
10.
Elsayed
,
A.
,
Emaye
,
M.
,
AL-Dadah
,
R.
, and
Mahmoud
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Thermodynamic Performance of KCS11: Feasibility of Using Alternative Zeotropic Mixtures
,”
Int. J. Low-Carbon Technol.
,
8
, pp.
i69
i78
.
11.
Akbari
,
M.
,
Mahmoudi
,
S. M. S.
,
Yari
,
M.
, and
Rosen
,
M. A.
,
2014
, “
Energy and Exergy Analyses of a New Combined Cycle for Producing Electricity and Desalinated Water Using Geothermal Energy
,”
J. Sustainability
,
6
(
4
), pp.
1796
1820
.
12.
Singh
,
O. K.
, and
Kaushik
,
S. C.
,
2013
, “
Energy and Exergy Analysis and Optimization of Kalina Cycle Coupled With Coal Fired Steam Power Plant
,”
J. Therm. Eng.
,
51
, pp.
787
800
.
13.
Feng
,
X.
, and
Yogi
,
G.
,
1999
, “
Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia-Water Mixtures for Power-Cycle Applications
,”
J. Energy
,
24
(
6
), pp.
525
536
.
14.
Nag
,
P. K.
, and
Gupta
,
A. V. S. S. K. S.
,
1998
, “
Exergy Analysis of Kalina Cycle
,”
J. Appl. Therm. Eng.
,
18
(
6
), pp.
427
439
.
15.
Sadhukhan
,
K.
,
Chowdhuri
,
A. K.
, and
Mandal
,
B. K.
,
2012
, “
Computer Based Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia-Water Mixture for the Analysis of Power and Refrigeration Cycles
,”
Int. J. Thermodyn.
,
15
(
3
), pp.
133
139
.
16.
Padilla
,
R. V.
,
Archibold
,
A. R.
,
Demirkaya
,
G.
,
Besarati
,
S.
,
Goswami
,
D. Y.
,
Rahman
,
M. M.
, and
Stefanakos
,
E.
,
2012
, “
Performance Analysis of a Rankine Cycle Integrated With the Goswami Combined Power and Cooling Cycle
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
3
), p.
032001
.
17.
Mirolli Mark
,
D.
,
2005
, “
The Kalina Cycle for Cement Kiln Waste Heat Recovery Power Plants
,”
Record Cement Industry Technical Conference
, Kansas City, MO, May 15–20, pp.
330
336
.
18.
Nag
,
P. K.
,
2002
,
Power Plant Engineering
,
2nd ed.
,
Tata McGraw-Hill Publication
, New Delhi, India.
19.
Ibrahim
,
O. M.
, and
Klein
,
S. A.
,
1993
, “
Thermodynamic Properties of Ammonia-Water Mixture
,”
ASHRAE Trans.
,
99
, pp.
1495
1502
.
20.
Ziegler
,
B.
, and
Trepp
,
C.
,
1984
, “
Equation of State for Ammonia-Water Mixtures
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
7
(
2
), pp.
101
106
.
21.
Patek
,
J.
, and
Klomfar
,
J.
,
1995
, “
Simple Functions for Fast Calculations of Selected Thermodynamic Properties of the Ammonia-Water System
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
18
(
4
), pp.
228
234
.
22.
Tamm
,
G.
,
Goswami
,
D. Y.
,
Lu
,
S.
, and
Hazra
,
A. A.
,
2004
, “
Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of an Ammonia-Water Power and Refrigeration Thermodynamic Cycle
,”
J. Solar Energy
,
76
, pp.
217
228
.
23.
Kim
,
K. H.
, and
King
,
S. W.
,
2014
, “
Assessment of an Absorption Power Cycle for Efficient Conversion of Low-Grade Heat Source
,”
Int. J. Min. Metall. Mech. Eng.
,
2
(
4
), pp.
116
120
.
You do not currently have access to this content.