In this work, the application of a phenomenological model to determine engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in driving cycles is presented. The calculation is coupled to a physical-based simulation environment consisting of interacting submodels of engine, vehicle, and engine control. As a novelty, this virtual calibration methodology can be applied to optimize the energy conversion inside a spark-ignited (SI) internal combustion engine at transient operation. Using detailed information about the combustion process, the main origins and formation mechanisms of unburned HCs like piston crevice, oil layer, and wall quenching are considered in the prediction, as well as the in-cylinder postoxidation. Several parameterization approaches, especially, of the oil layer mechanism are discussed. After calibrating the emission model to a steady-state engine map, the transient results are validated successfully against measurements of various driving cycles based on different calibration strategies of engine operation.

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