This study investigates the prospect of using permanent downhole resistivity and temperature sensors for scale monitoring during CO2 sequestration in saline carbonate aquifer. Current industry practice involves continuous geochemical analysis of produced formation water and petrographic analysis of cuttings at the surface. A major limitation of such methods is that formation scale dynamics is not captured in situ and in real time. Moreover, high cost and compositional change of produced fluid caused by evolution of dissolved gases are other setbacks. In this study, resistivity and temperature measurements were logged continuously for several months at 30 min interval during CO2 storage in brine saturated core samples. Carbonate samples were acquired from Indiana outcrops in the United States and cut into cylindrical cores. Samples were saturated with synthetic formation brine and CO2 was injected and stored at a temperature of 45 °C, pore pressure of 2000 psig, and an overburden pressure of 2500 psig. The pressure, temperature and resistivity of samples were collected and transmitted to a PC computer at an interval of 30 min for the period of storage. A base line log recorded after CO2 injection but prior to CO2/brine/rock interaction (CBRI) allowed us to track onset of dissolution and precipitation. Deflection away from the baseline either inward or outward during the period of storage marks two distinct reaction phenomenon-dissolution and precipitation. Our hypothesis was justified by results of geochemical analysis of prestorage brine and poststorage brine, and also by petrographic study of the cores. Several other tests were also run to ensure consistency. This study is new compared to previous works in the following ways: Many previous works focused on the applicability of electrical resistivity measurements to track CO2 migration by way of resistivity change as a function of CO2 saturation changes during CO2 sequestration. Many others also studied the effect of CO2 injection on the petrophysical and electrical properties of rocks. Previous works of these types used continuous flow of fluid in and out of the sample and such flow experiments lasted only few hours. The fate of formation resistivity under static condition and at longer storage period was not considered.

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