Application of nano or biomaterials for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has been recently much attended by petroleum engineering researchers. However, how would be the displacement mechanisms and how would change the recovery efficiency while nano and biomaterials are used simultaneously is still an open question. To this end, a series of injection tests performed on micromodel containing shale strikes. Three types of biomaterials including biosurfactant, bioemulsifier, and biopolymer beside two types of nanoparticles including SiO2 and TiO2 at different concentrations were used as injection fluids. The microscopic as well as macroscopic efficiency of displacements were observed from analysis of images recorded during the tests. Microscopic observations revealed different mechanisms responsible for oil recovery including: wettability alteration, thinning oil film, interfacial tension (IFT) reduction, and water in oil emulsion formation. Contact angle experiments showed changes in the surface wetness from an oil-wet to neutral-wet/water-wet conditions when a layer of nano-biomaterial covered thin sections of a shaly sandstone. Also the results showed that the presence of shales causes early breakthrough and ultimate oil recovery reduction. Shales act as flow barriers and enhance injection fluid viscous fingering. Displacement efficiency in shaly systems is sharply related to the shale distribution. Oil recovery after breakthrough in shaly systems is progressive and considerable volume of oil in place is recovered after breakthrough. The highest efficiency, 78%, observed while injecting one pore volume of biopolymer and SiO2 nanoparticles. This work illustrates for the first time the mechanisms involved in nano-biomaterial-crude oil displacements.

References

References
1.
Hoffman
,
B. T.
, and
Shoaib
,
S.
,
2014
, “
CO2 Flooding to Increase Recovery for Unconventional Liquids-Rich Reservoir
,”
ASME J. Energy Res. Technol.
,
136
(
2
), p.
022801
.10.1115/1.4025843
2.
Hommert
,
P. J.
, and
Tyner
,
C.
,
1981
, “
Model Capabilities for In-Situ Oil Shale Recovery
,”
ASME J. Energy Res. Technol.
,
103
(
2
), pp.
138
146
.10.1115/1.3230826
3.
Panwar
,
A.
, and
Nejadi
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Importance of Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) Data for SAGD Reservoir Characterization and History Matching Within Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) Framework
,”
ASME J. Energy Res. Technol.
(accepted).
4.
Soudmand-asli
,
A.
,
Ayatollahia
,
S. S.
,
Mohabatkar
,
H.
,
Zareie
,
M.
, and
Shariatpanahi
,
S. F.
,
2007
, “
The In Situ Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery in Fractured Porous Media
,”
J. Pet. Sci. Eng.
,
58
(
1
), pp.
161
172
.10.1016/j.petrol.2006.12.004
5.
Shabani Afrapoli
,
M.
,
Nikooee
,
E.
,
Alipour
,
S.
, and
Torsater
,
O.
,
2011
, “
Experimental and Analytical Study of Microscopic Displacement Mechanisms of MIOR in Porous Media
,”
SPE Americas E&P Health, Safety, Security, and Environmental Conference
, Mar. 21–23, Houston, TX.
6.
Ayatollahi
,
S.
, and
Zerafat
,
M.
,
2012
, “
Nanotechnology-Assisted EOR Techniques: New Solutions to Old Challenges
,”
SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference
, The Netherlands, June 12–14.
7.
Li
,
S.
,
Hendraningrat
,
L.
, and
Torsæter
,
O.
,
2013
, “
Improved Oil Recovery by Hydrophilic Silica Nanoparticles Suspension: 2 Phase Flow Experimental Studies
,”
IPTC 2013: International Petroleum Technology Conference
, China, Mar. 26–28.
8.
Sedaghat
,
M. H.
,
Ghazanfari
,
M. H.
,
Parvazdavani
,
M.
, and
Morshedi
,
S.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Investigation of Microscopic/Macroscopic Efficiency of Polymer Flooding in Fractured Heavy Oil Five-Spot Systems
,”
ASME J. Energy Res. Technol.
,
135
(
3
), p.
032901
.10.1115/1.4023171
9.
Mohammadi
,
S.
,
Masihi
,
M.
, and
Ghazanfari
,
M. H.
,
2012
, “
Characterizing the Role of Shale Geometry and Connate Water Saturation on Performance of Polymer Flooding in Heavy Oil Reservoirs: Experimental Observations and Numerical Simulations
,”
Transp. Porous Media
,
91
(
3
), pp.
973
998
.10.1007/s11242-011-9886-7
10.
Banat
,
I. M.
,
Franzetti
,
A.
,
Gandolfi
,
I.
,
Bestetti
,
G.
,
Martinotti
,
M. G.
,
Fracchia
,
L.
,
Smyth
,
T. J.
, and
Marchant
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Microbial Biosurfactants Production, Applications and Future Potential
,”
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
,
87
(
2
), pp.
427
444
.10.1007/s00253-010-2589-0
11.
Amani
,
H.
,
Sarrafzadeha
,
M. H.
,
Haghighic
,
M.
, and
Mehrniaa
,
M. R.
,
2010
, “
Comparative Study of Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria in MEOR Applications
,”
J. Pet. Sci. Eng.
,
75
(
1
), pp.
209
214
.10.1016/j.petrol.2010.11.008
12.
Bach
,
H.
, and
Gutnick
,
D.
,
2004
, “
Potential Applications of Bioemulsifiers in the Oil Industry
,”
Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal.
,
151
, pp.
233
281
.10.1016/S0167-2991(04)80150-2
13.
Martínez-Checa
,
F.
,
Toledo
,
F. L.
,
El Mabrouki
,
K.
,
Quesada
,
E.
, and
Calvo
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Characteristics of Bioemulsifier V2-7 Synthesized in Culture Media Added of Hydrocarbons: Chemical Composition, Emulsifying Activity and Rheological Properties
,”
Bioresour. Technol.
,
98
(
16
), pp.
3130
3135
.10.1016/j.biortech.2006.10.026
14.
Dastgheib
,
S.
,
Amoozegar
,
M. A.
,
Elahi
,
E.
,
Asad
,
S.
, and
Banat
,
I. M.
,
2008
, “
Bioemulsifier Production by a Halothermophilic Bacillus Strain With Potential Applications in Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery
,”
Biotechnol. Lett.
,
30
(
2
), pp.
263
270
.10.1007/s10529-007-9530-3
15.
Rosalam
,
S.
, and
England
,
R.
,
2006
, “
Review of Xanthan Gum Production From Unmodified Starches by Xanthomonas comprestris sp
,”
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
,
39
(
2
), pp.
197
207
.10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.10.019
16.
Nasr
,
S.
,
Soudi
,
M. R.
, and
Haghighi
,
M.
,
2007
, “
Xanthan Production by a Native Strain of X. campestris and Evaluation of Application in EOR
,”
Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
,
10
(
17
), p.
3010
.10.3923/pjbs.2007.3010.3013
17.
Leontaritis
,
K. J.
,
2005
, “
Asphaltene Near-Well-Bore Formation Damage Modeling
,”
ASME J. Energy Res. Technol.
,
127
(
3
), pp.
191
200
.10.1115/1.1937416
You do not currently have access to this content.