Palm methyl ester (PME) is a renewable biofuel that is produced by the transesterification of palm oil and is a popular alternative fuel used in the transportation sector, particularly in Asia. The objective of this investigation was to study the combustion characteristics of flames of prevaporized number 2 diesel and PME in a laminar flame environment at initial equivalence ratios of 2, 3, and 7 and to isolate the factors attributable to chemical structure of the fuel. The equivalence ratio was changed by altering the fuel flow rate, while maintaining the air flow rate constant. The global CO emission index of the PME flames was significantly lower than that of the diesel flames; however, the global NO emission index was comparable. The radiative fraction of heat release and the soot volume fraction were lower for the PME flames compared to those in the diesel flames. The peak temperatures were comparable in both flames at an equivalence ratio of 2, but at higher equivalence ratios, the peak temperatures in the PME flames were higher. The measurements highlight the differences in the combustion properties of biofuels and petroleum fuels and the coupling effects of equivalence ratio.

References

References
1.
Masjuki
,
H.
, and
Sapuan
,
S.
,
1995
, “
Palm Oil Methyl Esters as Lubricant Additive in a Small Diesel Engine
,”
J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.
,
72
, pp.
609
661
10.1007/BF02638864
2.
Karavalakis
,
G.
,
Alvanou
,
F.
,
Stournas
,
S.
, and
Bakeas
,
E.
,
2009
, “
Regulated and Unregulated Emissions of a Light Duty Vehicle Operated on Diesel/Palm-Based Methyl Ester Blends Over NEDC and a Non-Legislated Driving Cycle
,”
Fuel
,
88
, pp.
1078
1085
.10.1016/j.fuel.2008.11.003
3.
Hashimoto
,
N.
,
Ozawa
,
Y.
,
Mori
,
N.
,
Yuri
,
I.
, and
Hisamatsu
,
T.
,
2008
, “
Fundamental Combustion Characteristics of Palm Methyl Ester (PME) as Alternative Fuel for Gas Turbines
,”
Fuel
,
87
, pp.
3373
3378
.10.1016/j.fuel.2008.06.005
4.
Mofijur
,
M.
,
Masjuki
,
H.
,
Kalam
,
M.
,
Shahabuddin
,
M.
,
Hazrat
,
M.
, and
Liaquat
,
A.
,
2012
, “
Palm Oil Methyl Ester and Its Emulsions Effect on Lubricant Performance and Engine Components Wear
,”
Energy Procedia
,
14
, pp.
1748
1753
.10.1016/j.egypro.2011.12.1162
5.
Sharon
,
H.
,
Karuppasamy
,
K.
,
Soban Kumar
,
D.
, and
Sundaresan
,
A.
,
2012
, “
A Test on DI Diesel Engine Fueled With Methyl Esters of Used Palm Oil
,”
Renew. Energy
,
47
, pp.
160
166
.10.1016/j.renene.2012.04.032
6.
Benjumea
,
P.
,
Agudelo
,
J.
, and
Agudelo
,
A.
,
2008
, “
Basic Properties of Palm Oil Biodiesel–Diesel Blends
,”
Fuel
,
87
, pp.
2069
2075
.10.1016/j.fuel.2007.11.004
7.
Sarin
,
A.
,
Arora
,
R.
,
Singh
,
N.
,
Sarin
,
R.
, and
Malhotra
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Oxidation Stability of Palm Methyl Ester: Effect of Metal Contaminants and Antioxidants
,”
Energy Fuels
,
24
, pp.
2652
2656
.10.1021/ef901172t
8.
Chong
,
C. T.
, and
Hochgreb
,
S.
,
2011
, “
Measurements of Laminar Flame Speeds of Liquid Fuels: Jet-A1, Diesel, Palm Methyl Esters and Blends Using Particle Image Velocimetry
,”
Proc. Combus. Inst.
,
33
, pp.
979
986
.10.1016/j.proci.2010.05.106
9.
Love
,
N. D.
Jr.
,
Parthasarathy
,
R. N.
, and
Gollahalli
,
S. R.
,
2009
, “
Rapid Characterization of Radiation and Pollutant Emissions of Biodiesel and Hydrocarbon Liquid Diesel Fuels
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
(1), p.
012202
.10.1115/1.3068345
10.
Love
,
N.
Jr.
,
Parthasarathy
,
R. N.
, and
Gollahalli
,
S. R.
,
2009
, “
Effect of Iodine Number on NOx Formation in Laminar Flames of Oxygenated Biofuels
,”
Int. J. Green Energy
,
6
, pp.
323
332
.10.1080/15435070903106934
11.
Love
,
N. D.
,
Parthasarathy
,
R. N.
, and
Gollahalli
,
S. R.
,
2011
, “
Concentration Measurements of CH and OH Radicals in Laminar Biofuel Flames
,”
Int. J. Green Energy
,
8
, pp.
113
120
.10.1080/15435075.2011.546757
12.
Singh
,
V. N.
,
Parthasarathy
,
R. N.
, and
Gollahalli
,
S. R.
,
2013
, “
Radiation and Emission Characteristics of Laminar Partially Premixed Flames of Petroleum Diesel and Canola Methyl Ester Blends
,”
J. Petroleum Sci. Res.
,
2
, pp.
97
103
.
13.
Shu
,
Z.
,
Aggarwal
,
S. K.
,
Katta
,
V. R.
, and
Puri
,
I. K.
,
1997
, “
Flame-Vortex Dynamics in an Inverse Partially Premixed Combustor: The Froude Number Effects
,”
Combust. Flame
,
111
, pp.
276
295
.10.1016/S0010-2180(97)00018-7
14.
Dec
,
J. E.
,
1997
, “
A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser Sheet Imaging
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 970873.
15.
Romero
,
D.
,
2013
, “
Combustion Characteristics of Laminar Premixed Flames of Palm Methyl Ester and its Blends with Diesel
,” M. S. Thesis, School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.
16.
Turns
,
S.
,
2011
,
An Introduction to Combustion
,
3rd ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
17.
Orloff
,
L.
,
de Reis
,
J.
, and
Delichatsios
,
M. A.
,
1992
, “
Radiation From Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames
,”
Combust. Sci. Technol.
,
84
, pp.
177
186
.10.1080/00102209208951852
18.
Choi
,
S. C.
,
2009
, “
Measurements and Analysis of the Dimensionless Extinction Constant for Diesel and Biodiesel Soot: Influence of Pressure, Wavelength and Fuel Type
,” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.
19.
Kreith
,
F.
,
1973
,
Principles of Heat Transfer
,
Addison-Wesley
,
Cambridge, MA
.
20.
Siegel
,
R.
, and
Howell
,
J. R.
,
2001
,
Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer
,
4th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.