A new hydroprocessed renewable diesel (HRD) fuel comprised both straight chain and branched alkane fuel components. In an effort to find a research surrogate for this fuel, single cylinder engine testing was performed with various blends of n-hexadecane (cetane) and isocetane in order to find a binary surrogate mixture with similar performance characteristics to that of the HRD. A blend of approximately two-thirds n-hexadecane with one-third isocetane showed the most similar behavior based on conventional combustion metrics. Companion combustion modeling was then pursued using a combined detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for both n-hexadecane and isocetane. These modeling results show both the importance of isocetane in lengthening ignition delay (IGD), as well as the overall importance of chemical ignition delay as the dominating effect in the overall ignition delay of these binary blend fuels.

References

References
1.
Pitz
,
W. J.
, and
Mueller
,
C. J.
,
2011
, “
Recent Progress in the Development of Diesel Surrogate Fuels
,”
Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.
,
37
, pp.
340
350
.10.1016/j.pecs.2010.06.004
2.
Caton
,
P. A.
,
Williams
,
S. A.
,
Kamin
,
R. A.
,
Luning Prak
,
D.
,
Hamilton
,
L. J.
, and
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
2012
, “
Hydrotreated Algae Renewable Fuel Performance in a Military Diesel Engine
,”
Proceedings of the 2012 Spring Technical Conference
, Turin, Italy, May 6–9,
ASME
Paper No. ICES2012-81048.10.1115/ICES2012-81048
3.
Edward
,
T.
, and
Maurice
,
L. Q.
,
2001
, “
Surrogate Mixtures to Represent Complex Aviation and Rocket Fuels
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
19
, pp.
461
466
.10.2514/2.5765
4.
Bruno
,
T. J.
, and
Huber
,
M. L.
,
2010
, “
Evaluation of the Physicochemical Authenticity of Aviation Kerosene Surrogate Mixtures. Part 2: Analysis and Prediction of Thermophysical Properties
,”
Energy Fuels
,
24
, pp.
4277
4284
.10.1021/ef1004978
5.
Bruno
,
T. J.
, and
Smith
,
B. L.
,
2010
, “
Evaluation of the Physicochemical Authenticity of Aviation Kerosene Surrogate Mixtures. Part 1: Analysis of Volatility With the Advanced Distillation Curve
,”
Energy Fuels
,
24
, pp.
4266
4276
.10.1021/ef100496j
6.
Huber
,
M. L.
,
Lemmon
,
Diky
,
V.
,
Smith
,
B. L.
, and
Bruno
,
T. J.
,
2008
, “
Chemical Authentic Surrogate Mixture Model For the Thermo-Physical Properties of a Coal-Derived Fuel
,”
Energy Fuels
,
22
, pp.
3249
3257
.10.1021/ef800314b
7.
Anand
,
K.
,
Ra
,
Y.
,
Reitz
,
R. D.
, and
Bunting
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Surrogate Model Development for Advanced Combustion Engines
,”
Energy Fuels
,
25
(
4
), pp.
1474
1484
.10.1021/ef101719a
8.
Huber
,
M. L.
,
Lemmon
,
E. W.
, and
Bruno
,
T. J.
,
2010
, “
Surrogate Mixture Models for the Thermo-Physical Properties of Aviation Fuel Jet-A
,”
Energy Fuels
,
24
, pp.
3565
3571
.10.1021/ef100208c
9.
Huber
,
M. L.
,
Lemmon
,
E. W.
,
Ott
,
L. S.
, and
Bruno
,
T. J.
,
2009
, “
Preliminary Surrogate Mixture Models for the Thermophysical Properties of Rocket Propellants RP-1 and RP-2
,”
Energy Fuels
,
23
(
6
), pp.
3093
3088
.10.1021/ef900216z
10.
Luning Prak
,
D. J.
,
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
Hoang
,
D. T.
,
Brown
,
E. K.
, and
Trulove
,
P. C.
,
2013
, “
Development of a Surrogate Mixture for Algal-based Hydrotreated Renewable Diesel
,”
Energy Fuels
,
27
, pp.
954
961
.10.1021/ef301879g
11.
Wood
,
C. P.
,
McDonell
,
V. G.
,
Smith
,
R. A.
, and
Samuelsen
,
G. S.
,
1989
, “
Development and Application of a Surrogate Distillate Fuel
,”
J. Propul. Power
,
5
, pp.
399
405
.10.2514/3.23168
12.
Mueller
,
C. J.
,
Cannella
,
W. J.
,
Bruno
,
T. J.
,
Bunting
,
B.
,
Dettman
,
H. D.
,
Franz
,
J. A.
,
Huber
,
M. L.
,
Natarajan
,
M.
,
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
Ratcliff
,
M. A.
, and
Wright
,
K.
,
2012
, “
Methodology for Formulating Diesel Surrogate Fuels With Accurate Compositional, Ignition-Quality, and Volatility Characteristics
,”
Energy Fuels
,
26
, pp.
4277
4284
.10.1021/ef300303e
13.
Ramirez Lancheros
,
H. P.
,
Fikri
,
M.
,
Rincon Cancino
,
L.
,
Moreac
,
G.
,
Shulz
,
C.
, and
Dagaut
,
P.
,
2012
, “
Autoignition of Surrogate Biodiesel Fuel (B30) at High Pressure: Experimental and Modeling Kinetic Study
,”
Combust. Flame
,
159
, pp.
996
1008
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2011.10.006
14.
Ramirez
,
H. P.
,
Hadj-Ali
,
K.
,
Dievart
,
P.
,
Moreac
,
G.
, and
Dagaut
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Kinetics of Oxidation of Commercial and Surrogate Diesel Fuels in a Jetstirred Reactor: Experimental and Modeling Studies
,”
Energy Fuels
,
24
, pp.
1668
1676
.10.1021/ef9015526
15.
Mathieu
,
O.
,
Djebaili-Chaumeix
,
N.
,
Paillard
,
C. E.
, and
Douce
,
F.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Study of Soot Formation From a Diesel Fuel Surrogate in a Shock Tube
,”
Combust. Flame
,
156
, pp.
1576
1586
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.05.002
16.
Honnet
,
S.
,
Seshadri
,
K.
,
Niemann
,
U.
, and
Peters
,
N.
,
2009
, “
A Surrogate Fuel for Kerosene
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
32
, pp.
485
492
.10.1016/j.proci.2008.06.218
17.
Lemaire
,
R.
,
Faccinetto
,
A.
,
Therssen
,
E.
,
Ziskind
,
M.
,
Focsa
,
C.
, and
Desgroux
,
P.
,
2009
, “
Experimental Comparison of Soot Formation in Turbulent Flames of Diesel and Surrogate Diesel Fuels
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
32
, pp.
737
744
.10.1016/j.proci.2008.05.019
18.
Dooley
,
S.
,
Won
,
S. H.
,
Chaos
,
M.
,
Heyne
,
J.
,
Ju
,
Y. G.
,
Dryer
,
F. L.
,
Kumar
,
K.
,
Sung
,
C. J.
,
Wang
,
H. W.
,
Oehlschlaeger
,
M. A.
,
Santoro
,
R. J.
, and
Litzinger
,
T. A.
,
2010
, “
A Jet Fuel Surrogate Formulated by Real Fuel Properties
,”
Combust. Flame
,
157
, pp.
2343
2349
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.07.001
19.
Luning Prak
,
D. J.
,
Trulove
,
P. C.
, and
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
2013
, “
Density, Viscosity, Speed of Sound, Surface Tension, and Flash Point of Binary Mixtures of N-hexadecane and 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-Heptamethylnonane and of Algal-Based Hydrotreated Renewable Diesel
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
,
58
(
4
), pp.
920
926
.10.1021/je301337d
20.
Fermeglia
,
M.
, and
Torriano
,
G.
,
1999
, “
Density, Viscosity, and Refractive Index for Binary Systems of n-C16 and Four Nonlinear Alkanes at 298.15 K
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
,
44
, pp.
965
969
.10.1021/je9900171
21.
Tat
,
M. E.
, and
van Gerpen
,
J. H.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Temperature and Pressure on the Speed of Sound and Isentropic Bulk Modulus of Mixtures of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels
,”
J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.
,
80
, pp.
1127
1130
.10.1007/s11746-003-0830-x
22.
Demond
,
A. H.
, and
Lindner
,
A. S.
,
1993
, “
Estimation of Interfacial Tension between Organic Liquids and Water
,”
Environ. Sci. Technol.
,
27
, pp.
2318
2331
.10.1021/es00048a004
23.
Jasper
J. J.
, and
Kring
,
E. V.
,
1955
, “
The Isobaric Surface Tensions and Thermodynamic Properties of the Surfaces of a Series of n-Alkanes, C5 to C18, 1-Alkenes, C6 to C16, and of n-Decylcyclopentane, n-Decylcyclohexane and n-Decylbenzene
,”
J. Phys. Chem.
,
59
, pp.
1019
1021
.10.1021/j150532a006
24.
Korosi
,
G.
, and
Kovats
,
E.
,
1981
, “
Density and Surface Tension of 83 Organic Liquids
,”
J. Chem. Eng. Data
,
26
, pp.
323
332
.10.1021/je00025a032
25.
Sanchez-Rubio
,
M.
,
Gordillo
,
B.
, and
Rushforth
,
D. S.
,
1983
, “
An Inexpensive Du Nuoy Tensiometer
,”
J. Chem. Educ.
,
60
, pp.
70
71
.10.1021/ed060p70
26.
Totten
,
G. E.
,
Vestbrook
,
S. R.
, and
Shah
,
R. J.
, eds.,
2003
, “
Fuels and Lubricants Handbook: Technology, Properties, Performance, and Testing
,”
ASTM Manual Series, Mnl 37
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
27.
Aldrich Chemical,
2013
, “
Hexadecane Material Safety Data Sheet Version 5.0
.” St. Louis, MO.
28.
Carroll
,
F. A.
,
Lin
,
C.-Y.
, and
Quina
,
F. H.
,
2010
, “
Improved Prediction of Hydrocarbon Flash Points From Boiling Point Data
,”
Energy Fuel
,
24
, pp.
4854
4856
.10.1021/ef1005836
29.
Aldrich Chemical,
2012
, “
2,2,4,4,6,8,8-Heptamethylnonane Material Safety Data Sheet Version 5.0
.”
30.
Westbrook
,
C. K.
,
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
Herbinet
,
O.
,
Curran
,
H. J.
, and
Silke
,
E. J.
,
2009
, “
A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Reaction Mechanism for n-Alkane Hydrocarbons From n-Octane to n-Hexadecane
,”
Combust. Flame
,
156
(
1
), pp.
181
199
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2008.07.014
31.
Curran
,
H. J.
,
Gaffuri
,
P.
,
Pitz
,
W. J.
, and
Westbrook
,
C. K.
,
1998
, “
A Comprehensive Modeling Study of n-Heptane Oxidation
,”
Combust. Flame
,
114
(
1–2
), pp.
149
177
.10.1016/S0010-2180(97)00282-4
32.
Oehlschlaeger
,
M. A.
,
Steinberg
,
J.
,
Westbrook
,
C. K.
, and
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
2009
, “
The Autoignition of Isocetane at High to Moderate Temperatures and Elevated Pressures: Shock Tube Experiments and Kinetic Modeling
,”
Combust. Flame
,
156
(
11
), pp.
2165
2172
.10.1016/j.combustflame.2009.05.007
33.
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
Luning Prak
,
D.
,
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
McDaniel
,
A.
,
Williams
,
S.
, and
Leung
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Direct Sugar to Hydrocarbon Fuel Performance Evaluation in Multiple Engines
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 2014-01-1472.
34.
Mathes
,
A.
,
Reis
,
J.
,
Caton
,
P. A.
,
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
Luning-Prak
,
D.
, and
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
2010
, “
Binary Mixtures of Branched and Aromatic Pure Component Fuels as Surrogates for Future Diesel Fuels
,”
SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
794
809
.10.4271/2010-01-2188
35.
Carr
,
M. A.
,
Caton
,
P. A.
,
Hamilton
,
L. J.
,
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
Mehl
,
M.
, and
Pitz
,
W. J.
,
2011
, “
An Experimental and Modeling Based Study into the Ignition Delay Characteristics of Diesel Surrogate Binary Blend Fuels
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Fall Technical Conference
, Morgantown, WV, Paper No. ICEF2011-60027.
36.
Rothamer
,
D. A.
, and
Murphy
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Systematic Study of Ignition Delay for Jet Fuels and Diesel Fuel in HD Diesel Engine
,”
Proc. Combust. Inst.
,
34
, pp.
3021
3029
.10.1016/j.proci.2012.06.085
37.
Dec
,
J. E.
,
1997
, “
A Conceptual Model of DI Diesel Combustion Based on Laser Sheet Imaging
,” SAE Technical Paper No. 970873.
You do not currently have access to this content.