There is a controversy brewing for about 10 years that hydroelectric power plants are not a clean, renewable source of electricity. The current review indicates that the source of methane is not in the mechanics or mechanical design of the equipment used. The source of the methane is from nature, and man's failure to do the right thing. This methane may be reduced or completely eliminated. If this cannot be accomplished or if it is too expensive to retrofit the hydroelectric plant, then the deep water may be preprocessed (and the methane collected) before being used in the water turbine. Several methods have been introduced and discussed. Details have been omitted so that practicing engineers and other professionals can obtain funds to research and develop or invent the practical solutions suited to conditions local to the problem.

References

References
1.
Thornton
,
J.
,
2014
, “
What
'
s Really Making Us Fat
,”
Men
'
s Health Magazine
, March, pp.
132
139
.
2.
Hoffman
,
T.
,
2012
, “
New Theory: CO2 Makes You Fat
,” ScienceNordic, Mar. 11, Retrieved Feb. 10, 2014. Available at: http://sciencenordic.com/new-theory-co2-makes-you-fat
3.
Fernside
,
P. M.
, “
Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Hydroelectric Dams: Controversies Provide a Springboard for Rethinking a Supposedly ‘Clean’ Energy Source
,” Retrieved Feb. 10, 2014. Available at: http://www.academia.edu/1187968/Greenhouse_gas_emissions_from_hydroelectric_dams_controversies_provide_a_spring
4.
Rosa
,
L. P.
,
Santos
,
M. A. D.
,
Matvienko
,
B.
,
Sikar
,
E.
, and
Santos
,
E. O. D.
,
2006
, “
Scientific Errors in the Fearnside Comments on Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) From Hydroelectric Dams and Response to His Political Claiming
,”
Clim. Change
,
75
(
1
), pp.
91
102
.10.1007/s10584-005-9046-6
5.
Gagnon
,
L.
, and
van de Vate
,
J. F.
,
1997
, “
Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Hydropower: The State of Research in 1996
,”
Energy Policy
,
25
(
1
), pp.
7
13
.10.1016/S0301-4215(96)00125-5
6.
1996
,
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of GHG Emissions From the Full Energy Chain for Hydropower
, Nuclear Power and Other Energy Sources, Hydro-Quebec Headquarters, Montreal, Mar. 12–14.
7.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
2014
, “
Recommendations for Water-Energy Nexus Problems
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
136
(
3
), p.
034701
.10.1115/1.4026462
8.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
2010
, “
The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Heat Release to the Global Environment by Human Activities
,”
ASME Proc. IMECE 2010
, Vancouver, BC, CA.
9.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
Dai
,
Y.
, and
Paul
,
B.
,
2012
, “
Anthropogenic Heat Release Into the Environment
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
4
), p.
041602
.10.1115/1.4007360
10.
Wong
,
K. V.
, and
Chaudhry
,
S.
,
2012
, “
Use of Satellite Images for Observational and Quantitative Analysis of Urban Heat Islands Around the World
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
4
), p.
042101
.10.1115/1.4007486
11.
Wong
,
K. V.
,
Paddon
,
A.
, and
Jimenez
,
A.
,
2013
, “
Review of World Urban Heat Island: Many Linked to Increased Mortality
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
135
(
2
), p.
022101
.10.1115/1.4023176
12.
Louis
,
V. L. S.
,
Kelly
,
C. A.
,
Duchemin
,
E.
,
Rudd
,
J. W.
, and
Rosenberg
,
D. M.,
2000
, “
Reservoir Surfaces as Sources of Greenhouse Gases to the Atmosphere: A Global Estimate Reservoirs are Sources of Greenhouse Gases to the Atmosphere, and Their Surface Areas Have Increased to the Point Where They Should be Included in Global Inventories of Anthropogenic Emissions of Greenhouse Gases
,”
Bioscience
,
50
(
9
), pp.
766
775
.10.1641/0006-3568(2000)050[0766:RSASOG]2.0.CO;2
13.
Pacca
,
S.
, and
Horvath
,
A.
,
2002
, “
Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Building and Operating Electric Power Plants in the Upper Colorado River Basin
,”
Environ. Sci. Technol.
,
36
(
14
), pp.
3194
3200
.10.1021/es0155884
14.
dos Santos
,
M. A.
,
Rosa
,
L. P.
,
Sikar
,
B.
,
Sikar
,
E.
, and
dos Santos
,
E. O.
,
2006
, “
Gross Greenhouse Gas Fluxes From Hydro-Power Reservoir Compared to Thermo-Power Plants
,”
Energy Policy
,
34
(
4
), pp.
481
488
.10.1016/j.enpol.2004.06.015
15.
Dones
,
R.
,
Heck
,
T.
, and
Hirschberg
,
S.
,
2003
, “
Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison and Overview
,”
Energy
,
100
(
89–110
), Report 2300.
16.
Barros
,
N.
,
Cole
,
J. J.
,
Tranvik
,
L. J.
,
Prairie
,
Y. T.
,
Bastviken
,
D.
,
Huszar
,
V. L. M.
,
Giorgio
,
P. D.
, and
Roland
,
F.
,
2011
, “
Carbon Emission From Hydroelectric Reservoirs Linked to Reservoir Age and Latitude
,”
Nat. Geosci.
,
4
(
9
), pp.
593
596
.10.1038/ngeo1211
17.
Green-Planet-Solar-Energy.com, “
Hydroelectric Energy—The Methane Factor
,” Retrieved Feb. 10, 2014. Available at: http://www.green-planet-solar-energy.com/hydroelectric-energy.html
You do not currently have access to this content.