In an attempt to improve the fuel economy and reduce the exhaust emissions of motorcycles, some manufactures have developed commercialized motorcycles equipped with automatic idling-stop and go (AISG) functionality. Even though research efforts devoted to the idling-stop strategy have demonstrated its effectiveness, motorcycles equipped with the AISG device are not popular because the general public still has some concerns about them. This paper aims to evaluate the benefits and feasibility of a commercialized motorcycle with AISG functionality with regard to the public's concerns about fuel economy and emission problems during engine restart transients. In order to verify the accuracy of the analytical results and control for variable driver characteristics, a motorcycle chassis dynamometer was used to recreate the urban driving pattern. Furthermore, the feasibility of fuel-saving and emissions improvement by adjusting fuel-injection signal of the engine control unit (ECU) during engine restart operation was also evaluated. The experimental results showed that the addition of the fuel-injection modulation plus idling-stop strategy can improve the fuel economy rate by up to 12.2% and reduce carbon monoxide (CO) emission by up to 36.95% in comparison with the non-idling stop case.

References

References
1.
Transport and Environment, European Emission Standards, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/transport/road.htm
2.
Motoda
,
Y.
, and
Taniguchi
,
M.
,
2003
, “
A Study on Saving Fuel by Idling Stops While Driving Vehicles
,”
Proc. Eastern Asia Soc. Transp. Stud.
,
4
, pp.
1335
1344
.
3.
Jou
,
R. C.
,
Wu
,
Y. C.
, and
Chen
,
K. H.
,
2011
Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of a Motorcycle Idling Stop Policy at Urban Intersections
,”
Transportation
,
38
(
6
), pp.
1017
1033
.10.1007/s11116-010-9318-5
4.
Josias
,
Z.
, and
Dennis
,
G. P.
,
2005
, “
Estimating Extended Idling Emissions of Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks in Texas
,”
J. Transp. Res. Board
,
1941
, pp.
34
42
.10.3141/1941-05
5.
Linda
,
G.
,
Anant
,
V.
, and
John
,
L. A.
,
2006
, “
Estimation of Fuel Use by Idling Commercial Trucks
,”
J. Transp. Res. Board
,
1983
, pp.
91
98
.10.3141/1983-13
6.
Cowart
,
J. S.
,
2006
, “
Post-Combustion In-Cylinder Vaporization During Cranking and Startup in a Port-Fuel–Injected Spark Ignition Engine
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
128
, pp.
397
402
.10.1115/1.2061307
7.
Fonseca
,
N.
,
Casanova
,
J.
, and
Valdes
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Influence of the Stop/Start System on CO2 Emissions of a Diesel Vehicle in Urban Traffic
,”
Transp. Res., Part D
,
16
, pp.
194
200
.10.1016/j.trd.2010.10.001
8.
Himelic
,
J. B.
, and
Kreith
,
F.
,
2011
, “
Potential Benefits of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Consumers and Electric Power Utilities
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
133
, p.
031001
.10.1115/1.4004151
9.
Zoelch
,
U.
, and
Schroeder
,
D.
,
1998
, “
Dynamic Optimization Method for Design and Rating of the Components of a Hybrid Vehicle
,”
Int. J. Veh. Des.
,
19
, pp.
1
13
. Available at: http://www.inderscience.com/jhome.php?jcode=IJVD
10.
Assanis
,
D.
,
Delagrammatikas
,
G.
,
Fellini
,
R.
,
Filipi
,
Z.
,
Liedtke
,
J.
,
Michelena
,
N.
,
Papalambros
,
P.
,
Reyes
,
D.
,
Rosenbaum
,
D.
,
Sales
,
A.
, and
Sasena
,
M.
,
1999
, “
An Optimization Approach to Hybrid Electric Propulsion System Design
,”
Mech. Struct. Mach.
,
27
(
4
), pp.
393
421
.10.1080/08905459908915705
11.
Shiau
,
C. S. N.
,
Kaushal
,
N.
,
Hendrickson
,
C. T.
,
Peterson
,
S. B.
,
Whitacre
,
J. F.
, and
Michalek
,
J. J.
,
2010
, “
Optimal Plug–in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Design and Allocation for Minimum Life Cycle Cost, Petroleum Consumption, and Greenhouse Gas Emissions
,”
ASME J. Mech. Des.
,
132
(9), p.
091013
.10.1115/1.4002194
12.
Yusaf
,
T. F.
,
2009
, “
Diesel Engine Optimization for Electric Hybrid Vehicles
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
(1), p.
012203
.10.1115/1.3068347
13.
Crane
,
D. T.
, and
Bell
,
L. E.
,
2009
, “
Design to Maximize Performance of a Thermoelectric Power Generator With a Dynamic Thermal Power Source
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
(1), p.
0124011
.10.1115/1.3066392
14.
Malikopoulos
,
A. A.
,
2013
, “
Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
135
(4), p.
041201
.10.1115/1.4023334
15.
Lee
,
H.
, and
Kim
,
H.
,
2005
, “
Improvement of Fuel Economy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Continuously Variable Transmission Ratio Control
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
219
, pp.
43
52
.10.1243/095440705X6514
16.
Huang
,
Y. M.
, and
Hu
,
B. S.
,
2003
, “
Minimum Fuel Consumption and CO Emission and Optimum Speed of the Motorcycle With a CVT
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
125
(4), pp.
311
317
.10.1115/1.1625395
17.
Yu
,
S.
,
Dong
,
G.
, and
Li
,
L.
,
2008
, “
Transient Characteristics of Emissions During Engine Start/Stop Operation Employing a Conventional Gasoline Engine for HEV Application
,”
Int. J. Automot. Technol.
,
9
(
5
), pp.
543
549
.10.1007/s12239-008-0064-z
18.
Yu
,
S. E.
,
Ohn
,
H. S.
, and
Min
,
K. D.
,
2013
, “
Investigation of Engine Restart Stability After Idle Stop for a Mild Type HEV Powertrain
,”
Int. J. Automot. Technol.
,
14
(
5
), pp.
683
692
.10.1007/s12239-013-0074-3
19.
Zhou
,
J. H.
, and
Yuan
,
Y. N.
,
2011
, “
Calibration Experiments on Engine Emission Behaviour During the Stopping-and-Restarting Process in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D
,
225
, pp.
499
511
.10.1177/2041299110393206
20.
Chen
,
C. L.
, and
Lin
,
Z. D.
,
2013
, “
Feasibility Study of Emission Improvement Through Transient Emission Characteristics Analysis for Idle-Stop Motorcycles
,”
SAE Small Engine Technology Conference
, Taipei, Taiwan, SAE Technical Paper No. 20139052.
You do not currently have access to this content.