Erosion measurements in multiphase slug and annular flow regimes have been made in a horizontal 76.2 mm (3-in.) diameter pipe. These flow regimes are selected since they produce higher metal losses than other flow regimes, and they also occur for a wide variety of operating conditions. Experiments are performed with superficial gas velocities ranging from 15.2 m/s (50 ft/s) to 45.7 m/s (150 ft/s) and superficial liquid velocities ranging from 0.46 m/s (1.5 ft/s) to 0.76 m/s (2.5 ft/s), for liquid viscosities of 1 cP and 10 cP. Three different sand sizes (20, 150, and 300 μm sand) were used for performing tests. The shapes of the sand are also different with the 20 and 300 μm sand being sharper than the 150 μm sand. Erosion measurements are obtained using electrical resistance (ER) probes which relate the change in electrical resistance to the change in the thickness of an exposed element resulting from erosion. Two probes are placed in a bend and another probe is placed in a straight section of pipe. The probes in the bend are flat-head probes, and they are placed flush with the outer wall in the 45 deg and 90 deg positions. The probe in the straight pipe is an angle-head probe which protrudes into the flow with the face placed in the center of the pipe.

References

References
1.
Sciubba
,
E.
, and
Zeoli
,
N.
,
2007
, “
A Study of Sootblower Erosion in Waste-Incinerating Heat Boilers
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
129
, pp.
50
53
.10.1115/1.2424959
2.
Zhang
,
L.
,
Sazonov
,
V.
,
Kent
,
J.
,
Dixon
,
T.
, and
Novozhilov
,
V.
,
2001
, “
Analysis of Boiler-Tube Erosion by the Technique of Acoustic Emission Part І. Mechanical Erosion
,”
Wear
,
250
, pp.
762
769
.10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00714-1
3.
Brown
,
G.
,
2006
, “
Use of CFD to Predict and Reduce Erosion in an Industrial Slurry Piping System
,”
Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on CFD in the Process Industries, CSIRO
,
Melbourne, Australia
.
4.
Kadambi
,
J. R.
,
Charoenngam
,
P.
,
Subramanian
,
A.
,
Wernet
,
M. P.
,
Sankovic
,
J. M.
,
Addie
,
G.
, and
Courtwright
,
R.
,
2004
, “
Investigations of Particle Velocities in a Slurry Pump Using PIV: Part 1, The Tongue and Adjacent Channel Flow
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
126
, pp.
271
278
.10.1115/1.1786928
5.
Salama
,
M.
, and
Venkatesh
,
E.
,
1983
, “
Evaluation of Erosional Velocity Limitations in Offshore Gas Wells
,”
Proceedings of 15th Offshore Technology Conference
,
Houston
, TX, Paper No. OTC-4485.
6.
Bourgoyne
,
A.
,
1989
, “
Experimental Study of Erosion in Diverter Systems Due to Sand Production
,”
Proceedings of SPE/IADC Drilling Conference
, New Orleans,
LA
, Paper No. SPE/IADC-18716.
7.
McLaury
,
B.
,
1993
, “
A Model to Predict Solid Particle Erosion in Oilfield Geometries
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
8.
Okita
,
R.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Viscosity and Particle Size on Erosion Measurements and Predictions
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
9.
Torabzadehkhorasani
,
S.
,
2009
, “
Erosion Experiments and Calculations in Gas and Liquid Impacts Varying Particle Size and Viscosity
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
10.
Miska
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Particle and Fluid Speed Measurements for Viscous Liquids in a Direct Impingement Flow Resulting in Material Erosion
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
11.
Oka
,
Y. I.
,
Ohnogi
,
H.
,
Hosokawa
,
T.
, and
Matsumura
,
M.
,
1997
, “
The Impact Angle Dependence of Erosion Damage Caused by Solid Particle Impact
,”
Wear
,
203–204
, pp.
573
579
.10.1016/S0043-1648(96)07430-3
12.
Nidasanametla
,
S. A.
,
2012
, “
Effects of Viscosity, Particle Size and Shape on Erosion Measurements and Predictions
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
13.
Kouba
,
G.
,
1986
, “
Horizontal Slug Flow Modeling and Metering
,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
14.
Pereyra
,
E.
,
Arismendi
,
R.
,
Gomez
,
L. E.
,
Mohan
,
R. S.
,
Shoham
,
O.
, and
Kouba
G. E.
,
2012
, “
State of the Art of Experimental Studies and Predictive Methods for Slug Liquid Holdup
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
134
(
2
), p.
023001
.10.1115/1.4005658
15.
Al-Safran
,
E.
,
2009
, “
Prediction of Slug Liquid Holdup in Horizontal Pipes
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
, p.
023001
.10.1115/1.3120305
16.
Zhang
,
H.-Q.
,
Wang
,
Q.
,
Sarica
,
C.
, and
Brill
,
J. P.
,
2003
, “
A Unified Mechanistic Model for Slug Liquid Holdup and Transition Between Slug and Dispersed Bubble Flows
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
29
, pp.
97
107
.10.1016/S0301-9322(02)00111-8
17.
Zhang
,
H.-Q.
,
Wang
,
Q.
,
Sarica
,
C.
, and
Brill
,
J. P.
,
2003
, “
Unified Model for Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow via Slug Dynamics—Part 1: Model Development
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
125
, pp.
266
272
.10.1115/1.1615246
18.
Zhang
,
H.-Q.
,
Wang
,
Q.
,
Sarica
,
C.
, and
Brill
,
J. P.
,
2003
, “
Unified Model for Gas-Liquid Pipe Flow via Slug Dynamics—Part 2: Model Validation
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
125
, pp.
266
272
.10.1115/1.1615246
19.
Taitel
,
Y.
, and
Barnea
,
D.
,
1990
, “
Two Phase Slug Flow
,”
Adv. Heat Transfer
,
20
, pp.
83
132
.10.1016/S0065-2717(08)70026-1
20.
Fabre
,
J.
, and
Line
,
A.
,
1992
, “
Modeling of Two-Phase Slug Flow
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
24
, pp.
21
46
.10.1146/annurev.fl.24.010192.000321
21.
Al-safran
,
E., M.
,
Taitel
,
Y.
, and
Brill
,
J. P.
,
2004
, “
Prediction of Slug Length Distribution Along a Hilly Terrain Pipeline Using Slug Tracking Model
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
126
, pp.
54
62
.10.1115/1.1649971
22.
Chen
,
X.
,
McLaury
,
B. S.
, and
Shirazi
,
S. A.
,
2006
, “
A Comprehensive Procedure to Estimate Erosion in Elbows for Gas/Liquid/Sand Multiphase Flow
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
128
, pp.
70
78
.10.1115/1.2131885
23.
Zhang
,
Y.
,
McLaury
,
B. S.
,
Shirazi
,
S. A.
, and
Rybicki
,
E. F.
,
2011
, “
Predicting Sand Erosion in Slug Flows Using a Two-Dimensional Mechanistic Model
,”
NACE International Annual Conference
,
Houston, TX
, Paper No. 11243.
24.
Magrini
,
K. L.
,
2009
, “
Liquid Entrainment in Annular Gas-Liquid Flow in Inclined Pipes
,” M.S. thesis, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK.
25.
Abdulkadir
,
M.
,
2011
, “
Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Studies of Gas-Liquid Flow in Bends
,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.
26.
McLaury
,
B. S.
,
Shirazi
,
S. A.
,
Viswanathan
,
V.
,
Mazumder
,
Q. H.
, and
Santos
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Distribution of Sand Particles in Horizontal and Vertical Annular Multiphase Flow in Pipes and the Effects on Sand Erosion
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
133
(
2
), p.
023001
.10.1115/1.4004264
You do not currently have access to this content.