Synthetic data were analyzed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine accuracy. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference-tomography. The geophone arrays with widely varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best.

References

References
1.
IEA
,
2011
,
CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion
,
IAE Statistics
.
2.
Siegenthaler
,
U.
, and
Sarmiento
,
J. L.
,
1993
, “
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and the Ocean
,”
Nature
365
, pp.
119–125
.10.1038/365119a0
3.
Cohen
,
S. M.
,
Rochelle
,
G. T.
, and
Webber
,
M. E.
,
2010
, “
Turning CO2 Capture On and Off in Response to Electric Grid Demand: A Baseline Analysis of Emissions and Economics
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
132
(
2
), p.
021003
.10.1115/1.4001573
4.
Fronk
,
B. M.
,
Neal
,
R.
, and
Garimella
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Evolution of the Transition to a World Driven by Renewable Energy
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
132
(
2
), p.
021009
.10.1115/1.4001574
5.
Daneshfar
,
J.
,
Hughes
,
R. G.
, and
Civan
,
F.
,
2009
. “
Feasibility Investigation and Modelling Analysis of CO2 Sequestration in Arbuckle Formation Utilizing Salt Water Disposal Wells
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol.
,
131
, p.
023301
10.1115/1.3124115.
6.
NETL
,
2010
,
Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada
,
Department of Energy
.
7.
Cook
,
P. J.
,
1999
, “
Sustainability and Nonrenewable Resources
,”
Environ. Geosci.
,
6
(
4
), pp.
185
190
.10.1046/j.1526-0984.1999.64004.x
8.
Wyllie
,
M. R.
,
Gregory
,
A. R.
, and
Gardner
,
L.
,
1956
, “
Elastic Wave Velocities in Heterogeneous and Porous Media
,”
Geophysics
21
(
1
), pp.
41
70
.10.1190/1.1438217
9.
Oldenburg
,
C. M.
,
2003
, “
Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas for Natural Gas Storage
,”
Energy Fuels
17
, pp.
240
246
.10.1021/ef020162b
10.
Wang
,
Z.
,
Cates
,
M. E.
, and
Langa
,
R.
,
1996
, “
Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Flooding in a Carbonate Reservoir: Rock Physics Study
,”
SEG Annual Meeting
,
Denver, CO
, Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
11.
Wang
,
Z.
, and
Nur
,
A. M.
,
1989
, “
Effects of CO2 Flooding on Wave Velocities in Rocks With Hydrocarbons
,”
SPE Reservoir Eng.
,
4
(
4
), pp.
429
436
.10.2118/17345-PA
12.
Nolet
,
G.
, eds.,
1987
,
Seismic Tomography: With Applications in Global Seismology and Exploration Geophysics
,
Springer
,
New York
.
13.
Westman
,
E. C.
,
Luxbacher
,
K. D.
, and
Swanson
,
P.
,
2008
, “
Local Earthquake Tomography for Imaging Mining-Induced Changes Within the Overburden above a Longwall Mine
,”
42nd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium
,
San Francisco, CA
, The American Rock Mechanics Association.
14.
Zhang
,
H.
,
Sarkar
,
S.
,
Toksz
,
M. N.
,
Kuleli
,
H. S.
, and
Al-Kindy
,
F.
,
2009
, “
Passive Seismic Tomography Using Induced Seismicity at a Petroleum Field in Oman
,”
Geophysics
,
74
, pp.
57
69
.10.1190/1.3253059
15.
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Thurber
,
C.
,
2003
, “
User's manual for tomoDD1.1 (double-difference tomography) for Determining Event Locations and Velocity Structure from Local Earthquakes and Explosions
,” Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.
16.
Arts
,
R.
,
Eiken
,
O.
,
Chadwick
,
A.
,
Zweigel
,
P.
,
Van der Meer
,
L.
, and
Zinszner
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Monitoring of CO2 Injected at Sleipner Using Time-Lapse Seismic Data
,”
6th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies
, Vol.
29
(
9–10
), pp.
1383
1392
.
17.
White
,
D.
,
2009
, “
Monitoring CO2 Storage During EOR at the Weyburn-Midale Field
,”
The Leading Edge
28
, pp.
838
842
.10.1190/1.3167786
18.
Zhang
,
H.
, and
Thurber
,
C. H.
,
2003
, “
Double-Difference Tomography: The Method and Its Application to the Hayward Fault, California
,”
Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.
,
93
(
5
), pp.
1875
1889
.10.1785/0120020190
19.
Nogueira
,
M.
, and
Mamora
,
D. D.
,
2008
, “
Effect of Flue-Gas Impurities on the Process of Injection and Storage of CO2 in Depleted Gas Reservoirs
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol
,
130
, p.
013301
.10.1115/1.2825174
20.
Uddin
,
M.
,
Coombe
,
D.
, and
Wright
,
F.
,
2008
, “
Modeling of CO2-Hydrate Formation in Geological Reservoirs by Injection of CO2 Gas
,”
ASME J. Energy Resour. Technol
,
130
, p.
032502
.10.1115/1.2956979
21.
Raleigh
,
C. B.
,
Healy
,
J. H.
, and
Bredehoeft
,
J.
,
1976
, “
An Experiment in Earthquake Control at Rangely, Colorado
,”
Science
191
, pp.
1230
1237
.10.1126/science.191.4233.1230
22.
Yamashita
,
T.
,
1999
, “
Pore Creation Due to Fault Slip in a Fluid-Permeated Fault Zone and Its Effect on Seismicity: Generation Mechanism of Earthquake Swarm
,”
Pure Appl. Geophys.
,
155
(
2–4
), pp.
625
647
.10.1007/s000240050280
23.
Adams
,
N. J.
,
1985
,
Drilling Engineering: A Complete Well Planning Approach
,
Pennwell Books
,
Tulsa, OK
.
24.
Augustine
,
C.
,
Tester
,
J. W.
,
Anderson
,
B.
,
Petty
,
S.
, and
Livesay
,
B.
,
2006
, “
A Comparison of Geothermal With Oil and Gas Well Drilling Costs
,”
31st Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering
,
Stanford University
,
Stanford, CA
.
25.
Dijkstra
,
E. W.
,
1959
, “
A Note on Two Problems in Connexion With Graphs
,”
Numer. Math.
,
1
, pp.
269
271
.10.1007/BF01386390
26.
Luxbacher
,
K.
,
Westman
,
E.
, and
Swanson
,
P.
,
2007
, “
Time-Lapse Tomography of a Longwall Panel: A Comparison of Location Schemes
,”
26th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
,
Morgantown
,
WV
.
You do not currently have access to this content.