Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process in which material is removed from a surface due to impacts of solid particles transported within a fluid. It is a common problem faced by the petroleum industry, as solid particles are also produced along with oil and gas. The erosion not only causes economic losses resulting from repairs and decreased production but also causes safety and environmental concerns. Therefore, the metal losses occurring in different multiphase flow regimes need to be studied and understood in order to develop protective guidelines for oil and gas production equipment. In the current study, a novel noninvasive ultrasonic (UT) device has been developed and implemented to measure the metal loss at 16 different locations inside an elbow. Initially, experiments were performed with a single-phase carrier fluid (gas-sand) moving in the pipeline, and the erosion magnitudes are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results and found to be in good agreement. Next, experiments were extended to the multiphase slug flow regime. Influence of particle diameter and liquid viscosity were also studied. Two different particle sizes (150 and 300 μm sand) were used for performing tests. The shapes of the sand are also different with the 300 μm sand being sharper than the 150 μm sand. Three different liquid viscosities were used for the present study (1 cP, 10 cP, and 40 cP). While performing the UT experiments, simultaneous metal loss measurements were also made using an intrusive electrical resistance (ER) probe in a section of straight pipe. The probe in the straight pipe is an angle-head probe which protrudes into the flow with the face placed in the center of the pipe. The UT erosion measurements in a bend are also compared with experimental data obtained placing an intrusive flat head ER probe flush in a bend, and the results were found to be in good agreement. Finally, the noninvasive nano UT permanent placement temperature compensated ultrasonic wall thickness device developed for this work has the capability of measuring metal loss at many locations and also identifying the maximum erosive location on the pipe bend.

References

References
1.
Duckler
,
A. E.
, and
Hubbard
M. G.
,
1975
, “
A Model for Gas Liquid Slug Flow in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Tubes
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam.
,
14
, pp.
337
347
.10.1021/i160056a011
2.
Taitel
,
Y.
, and
Barnea
,
D.
,
1990
, “
Two Phase Slug Flow
,”
Adv. Heat Transfer
,
20
, pp.
83
132
.10.1016/S0065-2717(08)70026-1
3.
Brill
,
J. P.
,
Schmidt
,
Z.
,
Coberly
,
W. A.
,
Herring
,
J. D.
, and
Moore
,
D. W.
,
1981
, “
Analysis of Two Phase Tests in Large-Diameter Flow Lines in Prudhoe Bay Field
,”
SPEJ
,
271
, pp.
363
378
.10.2118/8305-PA
4.
Scott
,
S. L.
,
Shoham
,
O.
, and
Brill
,
J. P.
,
1989
, “
Prediction of Slug Length in Horizontal, Large-Diameter Pipes
,”
SPEPE
,
4
(3), pp.
335
340
.
5.
Nydal
,
O. J.
,
Pintus
,
S.
, and
Andreussi
,
P.
,
1992
, “
Statistical Characterization of Slug Flow in Horizontal Pipes
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
18
, pp.
439
453
.10.1016/0301-9322(92)90027-E
6.
Cook
,
M.
, and
Behnia
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Slug Length Prediction in Near Horizontal Gas–LIQUID Intermittent Flow
,”
Chem. Eng. Sci.
,
55
, pp.
2009
2018
.10.1016/S0009-2509(99)00485-6
7.
van Hout
,
R.
,
Barnea
,
D.
, and
Shemer
,
L.
,
2001
, “
Evolution of Statistical Parameters of Gas–Liquid Slug Flow Along Vertical Pipes
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
27
, pp.
1579
1602
.10.1016/S0301-9322(01)00016-7
8.
Wang
,
X.
,
Guo
,
L.
, and
Zhang
,
X.
,
2006
, “
Development of Liquid Slug Length in Gas-Liquid Slug Flow Along Horizontal Pipeline: Experiment and Simulation
,”
Chin. J. Chem. Eng.
,
14
, pp.
626
633
.10.1016/S1004-9541(06)60125-0
9.
Sarica
,
C.
,
Zhang
,
H.-Q.
, and
Wilkens
,
R. J.
,
2011
, “
Sensitivity of Slug Flow Mechanistic Models on Slug Length
,”
ASME J. Energy Resourc. Technol.
,
133
(
4
), p.
043001
.10.1115/1.4005242
10.
Gomez
,
L. E.
,
Shoham
,
O.
,
Schmidt
,
Z.
,
Choshki
,
R. N.
, and
Northug
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Unified Mechanistic Model for Steady State Two Phase Flow: Horizontal to Upward Verticle Flow
,”
SPEJ
,
5
, pp.
339
350
.10.2118/65705-PA
11.
Zhang
,
H.-Q.
,
Wang
,
Q.
,
Sarica
,
C.
, and
Brill
,
J. P.
,
2003
, “
A Unified Mechanistic Model for Slug Liquid Holdup and Transition Between Slug and Dispersed Bubble Flows
,”
Int. J. Multiphase Flow
,
29
, pp.
97
107
.10.1016/S0301-9322(02)00111-8
12.
Pereyra
,
E.
,
Arismendi
,
R.
,
Gomez
,
L. E.
,
Mohan
,
R. S.
,
Shoham
,
O.
, and
Kouba
G. E.
,
2012
, “
State of the Art of Experimental Studies and Predictive Methods for Slug Liquid Holdup
,”
ASME J. Energy Resourc. Technol.
,
134
(
2
), p.
023001
.10.1115/1.4005658
13.
Hill
,
A. L.
,
2011
, “
Determining the Critical Flow Rates for Low-Concentration Sand Transport in Two-Phase Pipe Flow by Experimentation and Modeling
,” M.S. thesis,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
14.
Al-lababidi
,
S.
,
Yan
,
W.
, and
Yeung
,
H.
,
2012
, “
Sand Transportations and Deposition Characteristics in Multiphase Flows in Pipelines
,”
ASME J. Energy Resourc. Technol.
,
134
(
3
), p.
034501
.10.1115/1.4006433
15.
Zeinali
,
H.
,
Toma
,
P.
, and
Kuru
,
E.
,
2012
, “
Effect of Near-Wall Turbulence on Selective Removal of Particles From Sand Beds Deposited in Pipelines
,”
ASME J. Energy Resourc. Technol.
,
134
(
2
), p.
021003
.10.1115/1.4006041
16.
McLaury
,
B. S.
,
Shirazi
,
S. A.
,
Viswanathan
,
V.
,
Mazumder
,
Q. H.
, and
Santos
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Distribution of Sand Particles in Horizontal and Vertical Annular Multiphase Flow in Pipes and the Effects on Sand Erosion
,”
ASME J. Energy Resourc. Technol.
,
133
(
2
), p.
023001
.10.1115/1.4004264
17.
Gundameedi
,
V. M.
,
2008
, “
Performance of Elecrical Resistance Probes and Acoustic Monitors in Slug Flow
,” M.S. thesis,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
18.
Odigie
,
M. E.
,
2008
, “
Acoustic Monitor Threshold Limits for Sand Detection in Multiphase Flow Production Systems
,” M.S. thesis,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
19.
Rodriguez
,
J. C.
,
2008
, “
Effects of Liquid Viscosity and Sand Size on Erosion in Slug Multiphase Flow
,” M.S. thesis,
Department of Mechanical Enigneering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
20.
Shirazi
,
S. A.
,
Shadley
,
J. R.
,
McLaury
,
B. S.
, and
Rybicki
,
E. F.
,
1995
, “
A Procedure to Predict Solid Particle Erosion in Elbows and Tees
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
117
, pp.
45
52
.10.1115/1.2842089
21.
Throneberry
,
J. M.
,
2010
, “
Solid Particle Erosion in Slug Flow
,” M.S. thesis,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
22.
Grubb
,
S. A.
,
2011
, “
Development and Use of a Multi-point Temperature Compensated High Precision Permanent Mounted Ultrasonic Instrument to Measure the Slug Flow Erosion Pattern in a Horizontal Standard Elbow
,” Ph.D. Dissertation,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
23.
Fan
,
C.
,
2010
, “
Evaluation of Solid Particle Erosion in Gas Dominant Flows Using Electrical Resistance Probes
,” M.S. thesis,
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tulsa
, Tulsa, OK.
You do not currently have access to this content.