Very low in situ permeability gas reservoirs are very common and represent a major portion of the current exploitation market for unconventional gas production. Many of these reservoirs exist regionally in Canada and the United States and also on a worldwide basis. A considerable fraction of these formations appear to exist in a state of noncapillary equilibrium (abnormally low initial water saturation given the pore geometry and capillary pressure characteristics of the rock). These reservoirs have many unique challenges associated with the drilling and completion practices required in order to obtain economic production rates. Formation damage mechanisms affecting these very low permeability gas reservoirs, with a particular emphasis on relative permeability and capillary pressure effects (phase trapping) will be discussed in this article. Examples of reservoirs prone to these types of problems will be reviewed, and techniques which can be used to minimize the impact of formation damage on the productivity of tight gas reservoirs of this type will be presented.
Formation Damage Issues Impacting the Productivity of Low Permeability, Low Initial Water Saturation Gas Producing Formations
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Bennion, D. B., and Thomas, F. B. (April 21, 2005). "Formation Damage Issues Impacting the Productivity of Low Permeability, Low Initial Water Saturation Gas Producing Formations." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. September 2005; 127(3): 240–247. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1937420
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