The mechanistic model of Taitel and Dukler  has previously been reported to exhibit a region in which three solutions exist for the height of the gas-liquid interface in the stratified/wave flow regime. Most laboratory studies have not dealt with flow rates in the ranges where the multiple solutions occur. An experimental study has been carried out at the University of Calgary to obtain such data. The object of this work is to review the relevant theory, investigate situations where theory suggests that multiple solutions should exist, and attempt to show whether or not such solutions do physically exist.
Experimental Investigation of Multiple Solutions for Liquid Holdup in Upward Inclined Stratified Flow
Contributed by the Petroleum Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received by the Petroleum Division; Apr. 2001; revised manuscript received Sept. 2002. Associate Editor: S. A. Shirazi.
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Smith , S. P., Gregory, G. A., and Yarranton, H. W. (June 4, 2003). "Experimental Investigation of Multiple Solutions for Liquid Holdup in Upward Inclined Stratified Flow ." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. June 2003; 125(2): 137–144. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1521710
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