The prevailing beliefs in the scientific and engineering literature are that: (i) thermodynamics is explained and justified by statistical mechanics; (ii) entropy is a statistical measure of disorder; and (iii) for given values of energy, volume, and amounts of constituents, the largest value of entropy corresponds to both a thermodynamic equilibrium state and the ultimate disorder. In this paper, we provide: (i) a summary of the beliefs as stated by some eminent scientists; (ii) experimental evidence that casts serious doubt about the validity of the beliefs; (iii) an outline of a nonstatistical unified quantum theory of mechanics and thermodynamics; (iv) an outline of a nonquantal, nonstatistical exposition of thermodynamics, valid for all systems (both macroscopic and microscopic), and for all states (both thermodynamic equilibrium and not thermodynamic equilibrium); (v) the definition and analytical expression of the entropy of thermodynamics; (vi) the interpretation of entropy as both a measure of the quantum-theoretic spatial shape of a molecule, and an indicator of order; and (vii) nonstatistical answers to the questions that motivated the introduction of statistical mechanics.
Entropies of Statistical Mechanics and Disorder Versus the Entropy of Thermodynamics and Order
Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF ENERGY RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received by the AES Division, August 1, 2000; revised manuscript received December 13, 2000. Associate Editor: W. Wepfer.
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Gyftopoulos, E. P. (December 13, 2000). "Entropies of Statistical Mechanics and Disorder Versus the Entropy of Thermodynamics and Order ." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. June 2001; 123(2): 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1368122
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