The effect of drag-reducing agents (DRA) on pressure gradient and flow regime has been studied in horizontal and 2-deg upward inclined pipes. Experiments were conducted for different flow regimes in a 10-cm i.d., 18-m long plexiglass system. The effectiveness of DRA was examined for concentrations ranging from 0 to 75 ppm. Studies were done for superficial liquid velocities between 0.03 and 1.5 m/s and superficial gas velocities between 1 and 14 m/s. The results indicate that DRA was effective in reducing the pressure gradients in single and multiphase flow. The DRA was more effective for lower superficial liquid and gas velocities for both single and multiphase flow. Pressure gradient reductions of up to 42 percent for full pipe flow, 81 percent for stratified flow, and 35 percent for annular flow were achieved in horizontal pipes. In 2 deg upward inclination, the pressure gradient reduction for slug flow, with a concentration of 50 ppm DRA, was found to be 28 and 38 percent at superficial gas velocities of 2 and 6 m/s, respectively. Flow regimes maps with DRA were constructed in horizontal pipes. Transition to slug flow with addition of DRA was observed to occur at higher superficial liquid velocities.
Effect of Drag-Reducing Agents in Multiphase Flow Pipelines
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Kang, C., Vancko, R. M., Jr., Green, A. S., Kerr, H., and Jepson, W. P. (March 1, 1998). "Effect of Drag-Reducing Agents in Multiphase Flow Pipelines." ASME. J. Energy Resour. Technol. March 1998; 120(1): 15–19. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2795002
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