The United States generates the largest amount of solid waste per person in the world. The old practice of direct landfilling and storage is receiving greater public resistance and is attributing to the search for alternative disposal methods. The evergrowing problem of solid wastes requires environmentally benign and good public acceptance for the safe and ultimate disposal of the various kinds of solid wastes. Incineration and various kinds of mass burn-type systems have been used to reduce the volume and mass of the wastes, which can be characterized by their operational temperature. In all types of incineration systems, different kinds of gas clean-up devices are used to meet the local, state, and federal regulations for the gases before being released into the environment. A major concern over these systems have been in the by-products produced from these systems during their normal design and off-design point of operation. Indeed, the by-products generated from some incineration systems, under certain operational conditions, can be a health hazard and the solid residue may be leachable. Recent trends in advanced thermal destruction systems are described which can destroy the solid waste to the molecular level. Advanced systems can be designed to meet almost any emission standards. The use of oxygen-enriched air in place of air for the combustion of gases released from the solid waste reduces the amount of effluent gas, and, hence, the reduced size and cost of the gas clean-up system. The use of an excess enthalpy system offers attractive benefits in which the energy released from the waste is recycled back into the system under controlled conditions with the final desired objectives of reduced emissions, higher efficiency, and lower costs. Thermal destruction of solid wastes using advanced techniques makes good technical, environmental, economical, and human health and safety. The issues concerning recyclability, life cycle integration, and health effects from incineration are only expected to grow in the future.

1.
Allen
D. T.
, and
Behmanesh
N.
,
1992
, “
Non-hazardous Waste Generation
,”
Hazardous Waste and Materials
, Vol.
9
, No.
1
, pp.
34
42
.
2.
Brunner, C. R., 1991, Handbook of Incineration Systems, McGraw Hill, Inc., New York, NY.
3.
Chopra, H., 1993, “High Temperature Controlled Destruction of Surrogate Solid Wastes,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, May.
4.
Chopra
H.
,
Gupta
A. K.
,
Keating
E. L.
, and
White
E. B.
,
1992
, “
Thermal Destruction of Solid Wastes
,”
Proceedings, 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference
, Vol.
1
, p.
377
377
.
5.
Depaul, F. T., and Crowder, J. W., 1989, “Control of Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators,” Pollution Technology Review, No. 169, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ.
6.
Duvall, D. S., Rukey, W. A., and Mescher, J. A., 1980, “High Temperature Decomposition of Organic Hazardous Wasters,” Proceedings, EPA 6th Annual Research Symposium, Chicago, IL, March 17–20, p. 121.
7.
Gupta
A. K.
,
1986
, “
Combustion of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
,”
Chemical Engineering Commun
, Vol.
41
, pp.
1
21
.
8.
Gupta, A. K., 1995, “Cost Benefit Analysis on the Thermal Destruction Technologies for Shipboard Surrogate Solid Waste,” Naval Surface Warfare Center Report CARDIVNSWC-TR-63-CR-95/10, Aug.
9.
Gupta, A. K., Ilanchezian, E., and Keating, E. L., 1994, “Thermal Destruction Behavior of Plastics,” Design Technical Conference, ASME Joint Power Generation Conference, Minneapolis, MN, September 11–14.
10.
Gupta, A. K., Keating, E. L., and Gill, S., 1996, “High Temperature Thermal Destruction of Shipboard Solid Wastes in the 21st Century Environment,” Proceedings, Energy Week Conference, Houston, TX, January 29-February 2.
11.
Hagenmaier, H., 1988, Energy Recovery Through Waste Combustion, eds., Brown, Evemey, and Ferrero, Elsevier Applied Science, Essex, U.K.
12.
Hoffelner, W., Muller, T., Funfschilling, M. R., Jacobi, A., Eschenbach, R. C., Lutz, H. R., and Vuilleumier, C., 1994, “New Incineration and Melting Facility for Treatment of Low Level Radioactive Wastes in Switzerland,” Proceedings, Incineration Conference, Houston, TX, May 9–12.
13.
Ilanchezhian, E., 1994, “Thermal Destruction of Solid Waste in a Laboratory Scale Facility,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, June.
14.
Ilanchezhian, E., Gupta, A. K., Missoum, A., and Keating, E. L., 1994, “Thermal Destruction Behavior of Plastic and Non-Plastic Wastes in a Laboratory Scale Facility,” Proceedings, ASME International Joint Power Generation Conference, Phoenix, AZ, October 2–6.
15.
James, E. H., and Narayani, M., 1987, “Pyrolysis Experiments With Municipal Solid Waste Components,” Publication No. 889513, ASME Waste Processing Conference.
16.
Kremer, H., 1982, “Chemical and Physical Aspects of NOx Formation,” Air Pollution by Nitrogen Oxides Studies in Environmental Science, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, pp. 97–114.
17.
Lee, C. C., Hufman, G. L., Nalesnik, R. P., Prymak, W., and Williams, P., 1995, “EPA/DoE Joint Efforts on Mixed Waste Treatment,” Proceedings, Incineration Conference, Bellevue, WA, May 8–12, pp. 7–18.
18.
Leidner, J., 1981, Plastic Waster, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY.
19.
Linak
W. P.
, and
Wendt
J. L.
,
1993
, “
Toxic Emissions from Incineration, Mechanisms and Control
,”
Progress in Energy and Combustion Science
, Vol.
19
, pp.
145
185
.
20.
Missoum, A., Gupta, A. K., and Keating, E. L., 1996a, “Thermal Destruction of Polypropylene and Polyethylene Terephthalate in a Laboratory Scale Thermal Destruction Facility,” Incineration Conference, Savannah, GA, May 6–10.
21.
Missoum, A., Gupta, A. K., Chen, J., and Keating, E. L., 1996b, “Thermal Decomposition of Solid Wastes,” Proceedings, Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC), Washington DC, August 12–15.
22.
Niessen, W. R., 1995, Combustion and Incineration Processes, Marcel Dekker, Inc., NY.
23.
Norton
G. A.
,
1992
, “
A Review of Trace Element Emissions from the Combustion of Refuse-Derived Fuel with Coal
,”
Environmental Progress
, Vol.
11
, No.
2
, pp.
140
144
.
24.
Oppelt
O. C.
,
1993
, “
Hazard Waste Critical Review
,”
Air & Waste Journal
, Vol.
43
, Jan., pp.
25
73
.
25.
Panagioutou
T.
, and
Levendis
Y.
,
1994
, “
A Study on the Combustion Characteristics of PVC, Polystyrene, Polyethylene and Polypropylene Particles under High Heating Rates
,”
Combustion and Flame
, Vol.
99
, pp.
53
74
.
26.
Pershing
D. W.
,
Lighty
J. S.
, and
Silcox
G. D.
,
1993
, “
Solid Waste Incineration in Rotary Kilns
,”
Combustion Energy and Science
, Vol.
93
, No.
1
, pp.
245
264
.
27.
Rubel, N. F., 1974, Incineration of Solid Wastes, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NJ.
28.
Seeker
W. R.
,
1992
, “
Metals Behavior in Waste Combustion Systems, Air Toxic Reduction and Combustion Modeling
,”
Proceedings, ASME
, Vol.
15
, pp.
57
62
.
29.
Sittig, M., 1979, Incineration of Industrial Hazardous Wastes and Sludges, Noyes Data Corp., Park Ridge, NY.
30.
Tillman, D. A., 1991, The Combustion of Solid Fuels and Wastes, Academic Press, Inc., New York, NY.
31.
Williams
P. T.
,
1992
, “
The Sampling and Analysis of Dioxins and Furans from Combustion Sources
,”
Journal of the Institute of Energy
, Vol.
65
, Mar., pp.
46
54
.
32.
Williams, P. T., and Besler, S., 1992, “The Pyrolysis of Municipal Solid Waste,” Journal of the Institution of Energy, pp. 192–200.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.