This paper introduces a methodology for comparing three advanced space and water heating technologies whose higher second-law efficiencies promise to offset their increased capital costs: 1) onsite cogeneration; 2) centralized cogeneration with district heating; and 3) electric heat pumps. The competing technologies are compared within a single-system boundary that includes the electric utility system, because cogeneration systems produce electricity and heat pumps consume it. This approach eliminates the electric rate structure from the equations, allowing the analysis to focus on cost rather than price. The results are intended to inform a longer term perspective, over which modern metering technology will enable utility rate structures to reflect the real duration-dependent cost of electricity generation.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.