Combustion efficiency and flue-gas drying of solid fuels are analyzed. A simple, universal arithmetic expression for combustion efficiency is developed. This expression involves four primary dimensionless parameters which relate to (and are fixed for given) fuel and ambient conditions, and three secondary dimensionless parameters which relate to (and vary with) fuel moisture content, excess air, and flue-gas temperature. Additional expressions involving the same primary parameters are developed to calculate the decrease in fuel moisture content due to flue-gas drying with and without entrainment of air into the dryer system and the decrease in flue-gas temperature with air entrainment. Values for the four primary parameters are presented for various fuels; their values do not vary much for most biomass fuels.

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